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Effects of early postnatal ethanol exposure on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the rat hippocampus were investigated. Wistar rats were assigned to either ethanol treatment (ET) separation control (SC) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. Ethanol exposure was achieved by a vapor inhalation method for 3 hours a day between(More)
Alcohol ingestion affects both motor and cognitive functions. One brain system that is influenced by ethanol is the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic projection system, which projects to diverse neocortical and limbic areas. The BF is associated with memory and cognitive function. Our primary interest is the examination of how regions that receive BF(More)
The neuroprotective mechanisms of cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in transient ischemia were investigated. Left VNS (0.4 mA, 40 Hz) was performed during 5 min ischemia in gerbils. About 50% of the hippocampal neurons were rescued from ischemic insult by VNS, and this effect was prevented by transection of the vagus nerve centrally to the site of(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 is the rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of prostaglandins and other eicosanoids. Prior reports have shown that inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 activity, either by selective inhibitors or by antisense oligonucleotide, results in suppression of growth of squamous cell carcinoma cell lines which express high cyclooxygenase-2 levels, such as(More)
Repetitive maternal deprivation (MD) of neonatal rats during early life is known as one of the strongest stressors to pre-weaned animals. There is increasing evidence that the cerebellum is involved in cognition and emotion. In the present study, we examined how neurotrophic factors and myelin-associated molecules and their receptors (NGF, BDNF, OMgp, TrkA,(More)
To determine whether severe long-term exercise affects on the brain, we investigated the mice brain after 12-week treadmill exercise. The mice (ddN, male, 25-35 g in body weight) were divided into severe, mild, and non-exercise group. Mice in severe groups ran on a treadmill at a speed of 25 m/min for 12 weeks and mice in mild group ran on a treadmill at a(More)
Maternal alcohol ingestion during pregnancy adversely affects the developing fetus, often leading to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). One of the most severe consequences of FAS is brain damage that is manifested as cognitive, learning, and behavioral deficits. The hippocampus plays a crucial role in such abilities; it is also known as one of the brain regions(More)
The developing central nervous system is known to be highly vulnerable to X-irradiation. Although glial cells are involved in various brain functions, knowledge on the effects of X-irradiation on glial cells is limited. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal X-irradiation on glial cells. Pregnant Wistar rats were(More)
Rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesions of the substantia nigra are used as a model of Parkinson.s disease (PD), and these "lesioned" rats exhibit a rotational behavior when further injected with apomorphine (APO). We examined whether lesions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) could modify the rotational behavior in PD model rats. Rats initially(More)
In an attempt to elucidate the involvement of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, particularly COX-1, in epileptogenesis, the localization of COX-1 and COX-2 expression in the mouse kindling model was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. COX-2 was predominantly observed in brain neurons and its concentration in the hippocampus increased with progressing seizures, as(More)