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PURPOSE Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D), increased levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were reported to be risk factors for mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the independent associations of these factors with cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death among(More)
AIMS We studied whether adding the spherical adsorptive carbon AST-120 to conventional treatments is effective in inhibiting progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) at the stage of moderate decrease in renal function. METHODS 43 CKD patients with moderately impaired renal function indicated by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 20-70 ml/min as(More)
It is known that the clock-period can be shorter than the maximum of signal-delays between registers if the clock arrival time to each register is properly scheduled. The algorithm to design an optimal clock-schedule was given. In this paper, we propose a clock-tree routing algorithm that realizes a given clock-schedule using the Elmore-delay model.(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple community-based cohort studies of mainly middle-aged and elderly populations have shown that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease. However, little information is available about an effect of cigarette smoking on progression of primary kidney diseases, including immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. STUDY DESIGN(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have demonstrated that podocyte injury, which results in proteinuria, leads to tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Although some studies have revealed that vitamin D administration protects renal structure and function in mesangial cell proliferative and/or excessive matrix productive models, the effects of vitamin D on podocyte injury(More)
Vascular calcification (VC) is a life-threatening complication of CKD. Severe protein restriction causes a shortage of essential amino acids, and exacerbates VC in rats. Therefore, we investigated the effects of dietary l-lysine, the first-limiting amino acid of cereal grains, on VC. Male Sprague-Dawley rats at age 13 weeks were divided randomly into four(More)
Severe defects in the glomerular filtration barrier result in nephrotic syndrome, which is characterized by massive proteinuria. The podocyte, a specialized epithelial cell with interdigitating foot processes separated by a slit diaphragm, plays a vital role in regulating the passage of proteins from the capillary lumen to Bowman's space. Recent findings(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Hyperphosphatemia, vitamin D deficiency, hyperparathyroidism, and high serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels, when studied separately, were found to predict the progression of CKD. However, studies with simultaneous measurement of mineral bone disorder (MBD)-related factors were scarce. This study aimed to identify(More)
Podocytes are specialized actin-rich epithelial cells that line the kidney glomerular filtration barrier. The interface between the podocyte and the glomerular basement membrane requires integrins, and defects in either α3 or β1 integrin, or the α3β1 ligand laminin result in nephrotic syndrome in murine models. The large cytoskeletal protein talin1 is not(More)
BACKGROUND Renal interstitial fibrosis is the common pathway in progressive renal diseases, where oxidative stress promotes inflammation and macrophage infiltration. Febuxostat is a novel nonpurine xanthine oxidase (XO)-specific inhibitor for treating hyperuricemia. While some reports suggest a relationship between hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease(More)