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The hypothalamic melanocortin system is crucial for the control of appetite and body weight. Two of the five melanocortin receptors, MC3R and MC4R are involved in hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis, with the MC4R having the major influence. It is generally thought that the main impact of the melanocortin system on hypothalamic circuits is external(More)
Insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2) plays complex roles in energy homeostasis. We generated mice lacking Irs2 in beta cells and a population of hypothalamic neurons (RIPCreIrs2KO), in all neurons (NesCreIrs2KO), and in proopiomelanocortin neurons (POMCCreIrs2KO) to determine the role of Irs2 in the CNS and beta cell. RIPCreIrs2KO mice displayed impaired(More)
Mechanical stress induces auto/paracrine ATP release from various cell types, but the mechanisms underlying this release are not well understood. Here we show that the release of ATP induced by hypotonic stress (HTS) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) occurs through volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC). Various VRAC inhibitors, such as(More)
We examined the effects of superoxide anion (O) generated by xanthine plus xanthine oxidase (X/XO) on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and muscle contractility in cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMC). Cells were grown on collagen-coated dish for the measurement of [Ca(2+)](i). Pretreatment with X/XO inhibited ATP-induced(More)
Sophisticated tongue movements are coordinated finely via cortical control. We elucidated the cortical processes associated with voluntary tongue movement. Movement-related cortical fields were investigated during self-paced repetitive tongue protrusion. Surface tongue electromyograms were recorded to determine movement onset. To identify the location of(More)
To evaluate relative factors for anorectic effects of l-histidine, we performed behavioral experiments for measuring food and fluid intake, conditioned taste aversion (CTA), taste disturbance, and c-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells before and after i.p. injection with l-histidine in rats. Animals were injected with saline (9 ml/kg, i.p.) for a control(More)
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