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The hippocampal mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapse exhibits NMDA receptor-independent long-term potentiation (LTP), which is expressed by presynaptic mechanisms leading to persistent enhancement of transmitter release. Recent studies have identified several molecules that may play an important role in MF-LTP. These include Rab3A, RIM1alpha, kainate autoreceptor,(More)
In Japanese, the same word can be written in either morphographic Kanji or syllabographic Hiragana and this provides a unique opportunity to disentangle a word's lexical frequency from the frequency of its visual form - an important distinction for understanding the neural information processing in regions engaged by reading. Behaviorally, participants(More)
A plane lying in depth is vividly perceived by viewing a random-dot stereogram (RDS) with a slight binocular disparity. Perception of a plane-in-depth is lost by reversing the contrast of dots seen by one of the eyes to generate an anticorrelated RDS. From a computational perspective, the visual system cannot find a globally consistent solution for matching(More)
Stereo processing begins in the striate cortex and involves several extrastriate visual areas. We quantitatively analyzed the disparity-tuning characteristics of neurons in area V4 of awake, fixating monkeys. Approximately half of the analyzed V4 cells were tuned for horizontal binocular disparities embedded in dynamic random-dot stereograms (RDSs). Their(More)
Stereoscopic vision is characterized by greater visual acuity when a background feature serves as a reference. When a reference is present, the perceived depth of an object is predominantly dependent on this reference. Neural representations of stereoscopic depth are expected to have a relative frame of reference. The conversion of absolute disparity(More)
Our choice is influenced by choices we made in the past, but the mechanism responsible for the choice bias remains elusive. Here we show that the history-dependent choice bias can be explained by an autonomous learning rule whereby an estimate of the likelihood of a choice to be made is updated in each trial by comparing between the actual and expected(More)
Stereoscopic depth is visible when viewing a random-dot stereogram (RDS), but invisible when the RDS is binocularly anticorrelated. The visual system cannot find a globally consistent solution for matching the left and right eye images of an anticorrelated RDS. Neurons in the striate cortex (V1) respond to binocular disparity in an anticorrelated RDS as if(More)
The physiology and morphology of visual interneurons in the lobula complex of the fleshfly, Boettcherisca peregrina, were studied using intracellular recordings and intracellular cobalt stainings, respectively. Using responses to movements of a spot of light and on-off stimuli at single positions, we classified the interneurons into five physiological(More)
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