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Increasing evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play anti-inflammatory roles during innate immune responses. However, little is known about the effect of MSCs or their secretions on the ligand response of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR8, receptors that recognize viral single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Macrophages play a critical role in the(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary nocardiosis frequently occurs in immunocompromised hosts and in some immunocompetent hosts with chronic lung disease; however, few reports have described pulmonary nocardiosis with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infection. Here we report for the first time two cases of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica(More)
Pneumonia is the fourth-leading cause of death globally, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most important causative pathogen. Because the incidence of pneumococcal diseases is likely to increase with the aging society, we should determine an optimal strategy for pneumococcal vaccination. While consensus indicates that 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung diseases generally cause chronic disease in immunocompetent hosts. Although a few studies have examined health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with MAC lung disease, there have been no large studies. This study aimed to evaluate HRQL and its correlation with clinical outcomes in MAC lung disease.(More)
Cats which were experimentally infected with the Alaskan strain of Echino-coccus multilocularis showed a sudden decrease in the recovery rate after day 10 postinfection. The growth rate of the cestode in the intestine of cat is very much retarded as is evidenced by the slow increase in the length as well as the late formation of the posterior proglottid as(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) pulmonary disease is a refractory chronic infectious disease. Options for treating M. abscessus pulmonary disease are limited, especially in outpatient settings. Among parenteral antibiotics against M. abscessus, intravenous amikacin (AMK) is expected to be an effective outpatient antimicrobial therapy. This(More)
BACKGROUND In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is one of the most difficult types of IRIS to manage. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has been suggested as a useful tool for(More)
Both disseminated cryptococcal infection and tuberculosis occur in hosts with impaired cell-mediated immunity, but there have been few reports about the concurrent infections in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection. A 64-year-old man, who had been taking corticosteroids for interstitial pneumonia, was diagnosed with disseminated(More)
BACKGROUND Biological agents inhibiting TNF-α and other molecules involved in inflammatory cascade have been increasingly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it remains controversial whether biological agents can be used safely in a patient with an underlying chronic infectious disease. CASE PRESENTATION A 63-year-old woman who had been(More)