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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique is being increasingly used for the microbiological diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). As PCR is highly sensitive, it can be positive even in a patient with Pneumocystis colonization. In this study, we evaluated whether the β-d-glucan assay could be used to differentiate between PCP and Pneumocystis jirovecii(More)
An open-labeled randomized study was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of polysaccharide (PPV23) or protein-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) among the elderly aged 80 years or older. A total of 105 nursing home residents were enrolled in this study. We analyzed the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of serotype-specific immunoglobulin(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play anti-inflammatory roles during innate immune responses. However, little is known about the effect of MSCs or their secretions on the ligand response of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR8, receptors that recognize viral single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Macrophages play a critical role in the(More)
OBJECTIVES Secondary bacterial pneumonia following influenza virus infection is associated with high mortality, but the mechanism is largely unknown. Epigenetic gene regulation appears to play key roles in innate and adaptive immunity. We hypothesized that histone acetylation, a major epigenetic mechanism associated with transcriptionally active chromatin,(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary nocardiosis frequently occurs in immunocompromised hosts and in some immunocompetent hosts with chronic lung disease; however, few reports have described pulmonary nocardiosis with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infection. Here we report for the first time two cases of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica(More)
BACKGROUND In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is one of the most difficult types of IRIS to manage. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has been suggested as a useful tool for(More)
Pneumonia is the fourth-leading cause of death globally, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most important causative pathogen. Because the incidence of pneumococcal diseases is likely to increase with the aging society, we should determine an optimal strategy for pneumococcal vaccination. While consensus indicates that 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung diseases generally cause chronic disease in immunocompetent hosts. Although a few studies have examined health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with MAC lung disease, there have been no large studies. This study aimed to evaluate HRQL and its correlation with clinical outcomes in MAC lung disease.(More)
Both disseminated cryptococcal infection and tuberculosis occur in hosts with impaired cell-mediated immunity, but there have been few reports about the concurrent infections in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection. A 64-year-old man, who had been taking corticosteroids for interstitial pneumonia, was diagnosed with disseminated(More)