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We evaluated the potency of garenoxacin in selecting resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants by determining its mutant prevention concentration, using strains with and without topoisomerase gene mutations, and compared its potency to that of other quinolones. Garenoxacin had a significantly greater potency against pneumococci, including strains(More)
Although RNA interference (RNAi) has become a ubiquitous laboratory tool since its discovery 12 years ago, in vivo delivery to selected cell types remains a major technical challenge. Here, we report the use of lentiviral vectors for long-term in vivo delivery of RNAi selectively to resident alveolar macrophages (AMs), key immune effector cells in the lung.(More)
Although the diagnostic significance of isolating Aspergillus spp. from respiratory cultures has been studied in immunocompromised hosts with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), little is known of such infections in immunocompetent patients with other forms of aspergillosis. In this study of adult pneumology ward patients, we examined the association(More)
Pneumonia results from bacteria in the alveoli. The alveolar epithelium consists of type II cells, which secrete surfactant and associated proteins, and type I cells, which constitute 95% of the surface area and meet anatomic and structural needs. Other than constitutively expressed surfactant proteins, it is unknown whether alveolar epithelial cells have(More)
NF-κB regulates cytokine expression to initiate and control the innate immune response to lung infections. The NF-κB protein RelA is critical for pulmonary host defense during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia, but the cell-specific roles of this transcription factor remain to be determined. We hypothesized that RelA in alveolar macrophages contributes to(More)
Epithelial cells line the respiratory tract and interface with the external world. Epithelial cells contribute to pulmonary inflammation, but specific epithelial roles have proven difficult to define. To discover unique epithelial activities that influence immunity during infection, we generated mice with nuclear factor-κB RelA mutated throughout all(More)
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) syndrome is potentially fatal. We encountered a nearly fatal case of DAH possibly due to intravenous itraconazole (ITCZ). A 53-year-old man with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis underwent pneumonectomy of the left lung 15 days prior to the onset of DAH, which was confirmed by bronchoalveloar lavage. The battery of diagnostic(More)
A 74-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital because of severe respiratory disturbance, fever, and sputum. We found massive consolidation of the right lung and nodular shadows on the left lung on chest X-ray, and detected influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen from a nasopharyngeal swab and urine(More)
OBJECTIVES Tomopenem (CS-023) is a novel parenteral carbapenem with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, as well as potent activity against drug-resistant pathogens, including penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We compared the in vivo(More)
The hepatic acute-phase response (APR), stimulated by injury or inflammation, is characterized by significant changes in circulating acute-phase protein (APP) concentrations. Although individual functions of liver-derived APPs are known, the net consequence of APP changes is unclear. Pneumonia, which induces the APR, causes an inflammatory response within(More)