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BACKGROUND An insertion element IS3 is flanked by terminal inverted repeat (IR) sequences. IS3 encodes two, out-of-phase, overlapping open reading frames, orfA and orfB, from which three proteins are produced. OrfAB is a transframe protein produced by -1 translational frameshifting between orfA and orfB, and it is known to be IS3 transposase. OrfA and OrfB(More)
Peptides derived from the alpha-helical domains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 inhibit HIV-1 fusion to the cell membrane. Enfuvirtide (T-20) is a peptide-based drug that targets the step of HIV fusion, and as such, it effectively suppresses the replication of HIV-1 strains that are either wild type or resistant to multiple reverse(More)
Alpha-helical peptides, such as T-20 (enfuvirtide) and C34, derived from the gp41 carboxyl-terminal heptad repeat (C-HR) of HIV-1, inhibit membrane fusion of HIV-1 and the target cells. Although T-20 effectively suppresses the replication of multi-drug resistant HIV variants both in vitro and in vivo, prolonged therapy with T-20 induces emergence of T-20(More)
Cimetidine is known to suppress the growth of several tumors, including gastrointestinal cancer, in humans and animals. Nonetheless, whether other histamine H(2)-receptor antagonists exert such tumor suppressive effects remains unclear. The effect of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride (roxatidine), an H(2)-receptor antagonist, on the growth of colon cancer(More)
Enfuvirtide (T-20) is a fusion inhibitor that suppresses replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) variants with multi-drug resistance to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors. It is a peptide derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (C-HR) of HIV-1 gp41, and it prevents interactions between the C-HR and the N-terminal HR (N-HR) of gp41,(More)
A transmembrane glycoprotein of HIV-1, gp41, plays a central role in membrane fusion of HIV-1 and host cells. Peptides derived from the amino- and carboxyl-terminal heptad repeat (N-HR and C-HR, respectively) of gp41 inhibit this fusion. The mechanism of resistance to enfuvirtide, a C-HR-derived peptide, is well defined; however the mechanism of resistance(More)
The S138A substitution of fusion inhibitory peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (C-HR) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 leads to enhanced binding affinity to the N-terminal heptad repeat (N-HR). As such, these peptides exhibit highly potent anti-HIV-1 activity. X-ray crystallographic analysis was performed to understand(More)
Reported herein are the design, biological activities, and biophysical properties of a novel HIV-1 membrane fusion inhibitor. alpha-Helix-inducible X-EE-XX-KK motifs were applied to design an enfuvirtide analogue 2 that exhibited highly potent anti-HIV activity against wild-type HIV-1, enfuvirtide-resistant HIV-1 strains, and an HIV-2 strain in vitro.(More)
Sake lees are solid parts filtered from the mash of sake, the traditional rice wine of Japan, which is brewed with Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The moisture-holding activity of sake lees has long been recognized in Japan. However, the constituent responsible for this activity has not been elucidated. In this study, we first determined(More)
The design and synthesis of novel non-peptide CXCR4 antagonists is described. The peptide backbone of highly potent cyclic peptide-based CXCR4 antagonists was entirely replaced by an indole framework, which was expected to reproduce the disposition of the key pharmacophores consistent with those of potential bioactive conformations of the original peptides.(More)