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Progress in stem cell research has prioritized the refinement of cell-labeling techniques for in vitro and in vivo basic and therapeutic studies. Although quantum dots, because of their optical properties, are emerging as favorable nanoparticles for bioimaging, substantial refinements or modifications that would improve their biocompatibility are still(More)
Although redundancy techniques are generally used to provide fault tolerance for the system large scale integrations (LSIs), these techniques have significantly costs. However, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) can easily provide high reliability due to their reconfiguration ability. The present paper proposes an effective fault detection method for(More)
In this paper, we propose fault-tolerant field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architectures and their computer-aid design (CAD) for intellectual property (IP) cores in system large-scale integration (LSI). Unlike discrete FPGAs, in which the integration scale can be made relatively large, programmable IP cores must correspond to arrays of various sizes. The(More)
FPGA fault detection consumes a great deal of test time compared with ASICs because FPGAs have complex structures. Re-placement and re-routing must be performed to avoid fault points, which causes an increase in recovery time and degrades performance. Therefore, we propose a fault detection method and develop placement and routing tools to avoid fault(More)
Generally, a programmable LSI such as an FPGA is difficult to test as compared to an ASIC. There are two major reasons for this. One is that automatic test pattern generator (ATPG) cannot be used because of the programmability of the FPGA. The other reason is that the FPGA architecture is very complex. In this paper, we propose a novel FPGA architecture(More)