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New reliable biomarkers are needed to predict the response to immune checkpoint inhibitors against programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), because PD-L1 expression on tumor cells has limited power for selecting patients who may benefit from such therapy. Here we investigated the significance of PD-L1 and PD-L2 gene copy number gains using(More)
Overexpression of receptor-type tyrosine kinases in various cancers is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype and poor outcome, but their expression had never been evaluated in large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung. In the present study, we investigated the expression of three receptor tyrosine kinases, epidermal growth factor(More)
BACKGROUND Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is expressed in B lymphocytes and triggers antibody diversification. Recent reports have indicated that the constitutive expression of AID in mice causes not only lymphomas, but also cancers of some organs including the lung, prompting us to investigate the expression and effect of AID on human lung(More)
The central type and peripheral type squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung have different clinicopathological characteristics, but, little is known about their biological characteristics. We investigated differences between the properties and phenotypes of peripheral-type (P-type) and central-type (C-type) SCC by performing an immunohistochemical(More)
BACKGROUND A radical resection is considered to be the most effective treatment for resectable non-small cell lung cancer. However, even when resected in early stages (T1aN0, T1bN0) up to 20% of patients will experience recurrence. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prognostic influence of lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) in stage IA(More)
BACKGROUND Elastic fibers enhance the stiffness of fibrotic tissues, but their role in the pathophysiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has not been fully examined. The aim of this study was to determine clinical significance of the amount of elastic fibers in IPF. METHODS We studied the surgical lung biopsy specimens of 43 patients with IPF.(More)
Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung can be divided into two types according to the location of the primary site: the central type and the peripheral type. The clinicopathologic factors in the peripheral type of lung squamous cell carcinoma have not yet been fully evaluated. A total of 204 surgically resected lung squamous cell carcinomas were reviewed with(More)
Lung cancer is a highly environmental disease, but cancer researchers have long been interested in investigating genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. This paper is a historical review and provides updated perspectives on lung cancer susceptibility research. The recent introduction of easier genotyping methods and the availability of an almost complete(More)
INTRODUCTION Gefitinib is a new molecular-targeted agent for the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer that fail to respond to conventional chemotherapy. Gefitinib is considered to be well tolerated and less toxic compared with conventional cytotoxic drugs. However, interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been reported as a serious(More)