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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are signaling receptors in the innate immune system that is a specific immunologic response to systemic bacterial infection. We investigated whether cerebral ischemia induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h differed in mice that lack a functional TLR3, TLR4, or TLR9 signaling pathway. TLR4, but not TLR3 or(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. Bee products [royal jelly (RJ), bee pollen, and Chinese red propolis] from the honeybee, Apis mellifera, have been used as traditional health foods for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Recently, it has been reported that a mutation in the sigma-1 receptor causes juvenile ALS. Therefore, the function of the sigma-1 receptor may be important in the pathology of ALS. In the present study, we investigated the effect of SA4503, a sigma-1 receptor agonist, against(More)
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show a significantly increased incidence of glaucoma. AD is also associated with the occurrence of the neurotoxic peptide amyloid beta (Abeta). Therefore, we investigated whether Abeta is associated with retinal cell death in a retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5). Treatment with Abeta(25-35), a neurotoxic fragment of(More)
To improve the clinical outcome of patients who suffered ischemic stroke, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the major concerns that should be conquered. Inflammatory reactions are considered a major contributor to brain injury following cerebral ischemia, and I/R exacerbates these reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the(More)
Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a member of epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, is a potent mitogenic peptide for various types of cells. HB-EGF is widely expressed in central nervous system, including hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and is considered to play pivotal roles in the developing and adult nervous system.(More)
Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light. VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones. The present study aims to clarify the mechanism underlying blue LED light-induced photoreceptor cell damage. Murine cone photoreceptor-derived(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder with no effective treatment. Fasudil hydrochloride (fasudil), a potent rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, is useful for the treatment of ischaemic diseases. In previous reports, fasudil improved pathology in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and spinal muscular(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced neuronal death may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, whether CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP), an ER-stress apoptotic mediator, is involved in the pathogenesis of ALS is controversial. Here we demonstrate the expression levels(More)
Rho kinase (ROCK), one of the serine/threonine kinases, is involved in pathologic conditions, and its activation causes neuronal cell death. Fasudil, a selective ROCK inhibitor, has been reported to cause increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the ischemic brain and protect against neuronal cell death by inhibiting ROCK. Ozagrel, a thromboxane A(2) synthase(More)