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Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with pleiotropic functions. We report here that PACAP-deficient (PACAP-/-) mice showed increased immobility in a forced swimming test, which was reduced by the antidepressant desipramine, to a similar extent as in wild-type mice. The atypical antipsychotic risperidone and the(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is one of the neurotransmitters that transfers light signals from the retina to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) where the master clock of mammalian circadian rhythm locates, and is suggested to be implicated in the mechanism of light-induced phase shift of the circadian clock. Here,(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory joint disease, including angiogenesis and synovitis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by progressive synovitis and subsequent bone destruction mediated by osteoclasts (OCs). In this study, we investigate the effects of VEGF(More)
BACKGROUND The skeletal muscle is an unusual site for metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Metastatic RCC must be differentiated from benign primary soft-tissue tumors because aggressive surgical resection is necessary. CASE PRESENTATION We present the case of a 65-year-old man with metastatic RCC in the gluteus maximus muscle (3.8 cm in diameter)(More)
Psychostimulants, including amphetamine, act as antihyperkinetic agents in humans with hyperkinetic disorder such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and are known to be effective in enhancing attention-related processes; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been adequately addressed. Mice lacking the Adcyap1 gene encoding the neuropeptide(More)
Some of the aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channel proteins, are expressed in astrocytes. The expression of astrocytic AQPs is altered after brain insults, such as ischemia and head trauma. However, little is known about the regulation of AQP expressions. Endothelins (ETs), which are vasoconstrictor peptides, regulate several pathophysiological(More)
MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and contribute to cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. Our previous study revealed the extensive modulation of a set of miRs in malignant glioma. In that study, miR microarray analysis demonstrated the upregulation of microRNA-183 (miR-183) in glioblastomas. Therefore,(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene that are frequently observed in low-grade glioma are strongly associated with the accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), which is a valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of IDH1 mutant glioma. However, conventional MR spectroscopy (MRS)-based noninvasive detection of 2HG is(More)
OBJECTIVE Symptomatic cerebral vasospasm is a major cause of disability and death in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of intra-arterial infusion (IAF) of fasudil hydrochloride for symptomatic vasospasm in terms of neurological improvement and the angiographic features of cerebral(More)
We have recently shown that in PC12 cells, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and NGF synergistically stimulate PACAP mRNA expression primarily via a mechanism involving a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent pathway. Here we have analyzed p38 MAPK activation by PACAP and the mechanism underlying this action of PACAP(More)