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Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) comprises a superfamily of enzymes that hydrolyse the ester bond of phospholipids at the sn-2 position. Among the members of this superfamily, cytosolic PLA2 has attracted attention because it preferentially hydrolyses arachidonoyl phospholipids and is activated by submicromolar concentrations of Ca2+ ions and by phosphorylation by(More)
C3G is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rap1, and is activated via Crk adaptor protein. To understand the physiological role of C3G, we generated C3G knockout mice. C3G(-/-) homozygous mice died before embryonic day 7.5. The lethality was rescued by the expression of the human C3G transgene, which could be excised upon the expression of Cre(More)
We have revealed that about one and a half thousand tiny clusters, filled with one thousand closely packed lymphocytes, can be found throughout the murine small and large intestinal mucosa. They are located in crypt lamina propria (cryptopatches; CP) and can be first detected at 14-17 d after birth. A large fraction of lymphocytes in CP expresses c-kit,(More)
Estrogen deficiency caused by ovariectomy (OVX) results in a marked bone loss due to stimulated bone resorption by osteoclasts. During our investigations of the pathogenesis of bone loss in estrogen deficiency, we found that OVX selectively stimulates B-lymphopoiesis which results in marked accumulation of B220-positive pre-B cells in mouse bone marrow. To(More)
Peyer's patch (PP) organogenesis proceeds through three histologically distinct steps: formation of organizing centers expressing VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in segregated regions of the intestine at 15.5 days post-coitus (d.p.c.) (step I), accumulation of blood cells expressing different sets of surface markers to this region at 16.5-17.0 d.p.c. (step II), and entry(More)
Evi-1 is a zinc finger nuclear protein whose inappropriate expression leads to leukemic transformation of hematopoietic cells in mice and humans. This was previously shown to block the antiproliferative effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Evi-1 represses TGF-beta signaling by direct interaction with Smad3 through its first zinc finger(More)
The interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7R) plays a crucial role in early B- and T-cell development. It consists of a unique a chain and a common gamma chain [IL-2 receptor gamma chain (IL-2Rgamma)]. Gene inactivation of IL-7, IL-7R, and IL-2Rgamma resulted in severe impairment of B and T lymphopoiesis in mice. In addition, IL-2Rgamma-deficient mice lack gammadelta(More)
Acetylation of a transcription factor has recently been shown to play a significant role in gene regulation. Here we show that GATA-3 is acetylated in T cells and that a mutation introduced into amino acids 305-307 (KRR-GATA3) creates local hypoacetylation in GATA-3. Remarkably, KRR-GATA3 possesses the most potent suppressive effect when compared with other(More)
Mouse TCR gamma genes in the gamma1 cluster are arranged in the order of Vgamma5, Vgamma2, Vgamma4, Vgamma3, Jgamma1, and Cgamma1 on the chromosome. During thymic ontogeny, each Vgamma gene recombines with the Jgamma1 gene in the order of proximity to Jgamma1. To explore the mechanism of the ordered recombination, we generated Vgamma4-deficient mice by gene(More)
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) were detected in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) by an immunochemical method. However, we could not detect IL-4 in GCF from severe inflammation sites. In addition, we sought to detect which cells had produced cytokines in moderately inflamed gingival tissues by means of(More)