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A battery of tests designed to elicit reactions to a variety of non-painful threat stimuli was used to study the effects of chlordiazepoxide (5-20 mg/kg), diazepam (1-5 mg/kg) and midazolam (1-10 mg/kg) on the defensive repertoire of wild Rattus rattus. The most consistent effect of benzodiazepine treatment, across compounds and tests, was a marked(More)
Temporal changes in cerebral blood flow induced by jaw movement have yet to be investigated. To assess the influence of pattern and intensity of muscle contraction during jaw movement on task-induced change in cerebral blood flow, we performed bilateral transcranial Doppler ultrasound examination during clenching, gum chewing, and tooth tapping in healthy(More)
BACKGROUND In the recent hyper-aged societies of developed countries, the market for soft diets for patients with dysphagia has been growing and numerous jelly-type foods have become available. However, interrelationships between the biomechanics of oral strategies and jelly texture remain unclear. The present study investigated the influence of the initial(More)
A battery of tests designed to elicit reactions to a variety of nonpainful threat stimuli was used to study the effects of the 5HT1A agonists buspirone (5-20 mg/kg), and gepirone (5-20 mg/kg) on the defensive repertoire of wild Rattus rattus. These two compounds produced very similar patterns of results on the test battery, with gepirone generally more(More)
When mixed-sex groups of rats in established colonies were given free access to 4% and then 8% ethanol solutions, relative ethanol consumption for individual subjects was consistent over the two solutions, with some subordinate males consuming much more ethanol than any of the dominant males. Overall, subordinate male consumption was significantly higher(More)
Male rats confronting strange male intruders into their home cages were divided into nonaggressive, low-to-intermediate aggressive, and highly aggressive groups. In tests with low (0.3 and 0.6 g/kg) doses of ethanol the nonaggressive rats did not become aggressive; low-intermediate animals showed a significant increase in frequency and duration of attack(More)
Contact of the tongue against the hard palate plays an important role in swallowing. This study aimed to clarify the pattern of contact between the tongue and hard palate by analyzing tongue pressure produced in swallowing 15 ml of water by healthy subjects wearing an experimental palatal plate with seven pressure sensors. Tongue pressure was generated(More)
Although effortful swallow and the Mendelsohn maneuver are commonly used in dysphagia rehabilitation, little is known about their effects on tongue-palate pressure production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of effortful swallow and the Mendelsohn maneuver on tongue pressure production. Fourteen healthy volunteers (10 men, 4 women;(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Dysphagia is important for prognosis in patients with stroke because this condition can cause aspiration pneumonia or nutritional deficits. The present study investigated the relationship between tongue motor deficits and dysphagia in patients with acute stroke. METHODS Maximal tongue pressure on the hard palate when swallowing 5 mL(More)
The tongue plays an important role in mastication and swallowing by its contact with the hard palate. Using an experimental palatal plate with 7 pressure sensors, and recording jaw movement using mandibular kinesiography, we assessed, in healthy subjects, the coordination of tongue and jaw movements during the entire masticatory sequence of solids, by(More)