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The present paper examines human hand impedance characteristics, including inertia and viscosity as well as stiffness, in multi-joint arm movements. While a subject maintains a given hand location, small external disturbances are applied to his hand by a manipulandum. The corresponding force-displacement vectors are measured and sampled over time in order(More)
Sound localization in the horizontal plane is mainly determined by interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD). Both cues result in an estimate of sound source location and in many real-life situations these two cues are roughly congruent. When stimulating listeners with headphones it is possible to counterbalance the two cues,(More)
In the present study, we used a dry maze task to assess the spatial learning ability of C57BL/6N and BALB/cA mice besides the water maze task. In Experiment 1, the performance of C57BL/6N and BALB/cA mice in the water maze task and dry maze task were investigated. In the former task, the mice had to learn the position of a hidden platform submerged below(More)
When humans process visual stimuli, global information often takes precedence over local information. In contrast, some recent studies have pointed to a local precedence effect in both pigeons and nonhuman primates. In the experiment reported here, we compared the speed of acquisition of two different categorizations of the same four geometric figures. One(More)
Although left-right (L-R) asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B)(More)
This paper examines the contribution of stimulus processing to animal logics. In the classic functionalist S-O-R view of learning (and cognition), stimuli provide the raw material to which the organism applies its cognitive processes-its logic, which may be taxon-specific. Stimuli may contribute to the logic of the organism's response, and may do so in(More)
Twelve pigeons ( Columba livia) were trained on a go/no-go schedule to discriminate between two kinds of movement patterns of dots, which to human observers appear to be "intentional" and "non-intentional" movements. In experiment 1, the intentional motion stimulus contained one dot (a "wolf") that moved systematically towards another dot as though stalking(More)
Evidence of metamemory, the ability to monitor one’s own memory, has been obtained in some primates, but it appears to be weaker in other species. In this study, we examined whether crows flexibly modulate their behavior by monitoring the strength of memory trace in a delayed matching-to-sample task using two paradigms. First, crows performing a memory test(More)
Pipistrellus abramus emits quasi-constant frequency pulses during search, which extend the end frequency portion of the downward frequency-modulated sweep (terminal frequency; TF). If the narrowed frequency range is important for detecting a small frequency change caused by insect fluttering, the bats may need much finer frequency resolution at the TF. To(More)