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The present paper examines human hand impedance characteristics, including inertia and viscosity as well as stiffness, in multi-joint arm movements. While a subject maintains a given hand location, small external disturbances are applied to his hand by a manipulandum. The corresponding force-displacement vectors are measured and sampled over time in order(More)
This paper examines the contribution of stimulus processing to animal logics. In the classic functionalist S-O-R view of learning (and cognition), stimuli provide the raw material to which the organism applies its cognitive processes-its logic, which may be taxon-specific. Stimuli may contribute to the logic of the organism's response, and may do so in(More)
Skeletal myopathy was found in almost all-transgenic mice carrying the human prototype c-Ha-ras gene (rasH2 mouse). Microscopically, variation of the muscle fiber size, centrally placed nuclei, regenerating fibers, and interstitial fibrosis were evident; hyalinization and necrosis were sometimes observed in the skeletal muscle (femoralis and pectoralis) of(More)
Evidence of metamemory, the ability to monitor one’s own memory, has been obtained in some primates, but it appears to be weaker in other species. In this study, we examined whether crows flexibly modulate their behavior by monitoring the strength of memory trace in a delayed matching-to-sample task using two paradigms. First, crows performing a memory test(More)
Sound localization in the horizontal plane is mainly determined by interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD). Both cues result in an estimate of sound source location and in many real-life situations these two cues are roughly congruent. When stimulating listeners with headphones it is possible to counterbalance the two cues,(More)
Effects of geissoschizine methyl ether, an indole alkaloid isolated from the hook of Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus, on vascular responses were examined using isolated strips of rat aorta. Geissoschizine methyl ether (10(-7)-10(-4) M) relaxed norepinephrine (5x10(-8) M)-induced contraction in a dose-dependent manner. The potency (50% efficacy concentration,(More)
When humans process visual stimuli, global information often takes precedence over local information. In contrast, some recent studies have pointed to a local precedence effect in both pigeons and nonhuman primates. In the experiment reported here, we compared the speed of acquisition of two different categorizations of the same four geometric figures. One(More)
Although left-right (L-R) asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B)(More)
We investigated the actions of Gosha-jinki-gan, a traditional Japanese medicine containing processed Aconiti tubers, on urinary bladder function in anesthetized rats. In cystometrical investigations, Gosha-jinki-gan (1.0 g/kg, i.d.) increased bladder capacity as well as micturition threshold pressure. In addition, it decreased the frequency of(More)