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The present paper examines human hand impedance characteristics, including inertia and viscosity as well as stiffness, in multi-joint arm movements. While a subject maintains a given hand location, small external disturbances are applied to his hand by a manipulandum. The corresponding force-displacement vectors are measured and sampled over time in order(More)
Sound localization in the horizontal plane is mainly determined by interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD). Both cues result in an estimate of sound source location and in many real-life situations these two cues are roughly congruent. When stimulating listeners with headphones it is possible to counterbalance the two cues,(More)
Effects of geissoschizine methyl ether, an indole alkaloid isolated from the hook of Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus, on vascular responses were examined using isolated strips of rat aorta. Geissoschizine methyl ether (10(-7)-10(-4) M) relaxed norepinephrine (5x10(-8) M)-induced contraction in a dose-dependent manner. The potency (50% efficacy concentration,(More)
Although left-right (L-R) asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B)(More)
When humans process visual stimuli, global information often takes precedence over local information. In contrast, some recent studies have pointed to a local precedence effect in both pigeons and nonhuman primates. In the experiment reported here, we compared the speed of acquisition of two different categorizations of the same four geometric figures. One(More)
We investigated the actions of Gosha-jinki-gan, a traditional Japanese medicine containing processed Aconiti tubers, on urinary bladder function in anesthetized rats. In cystometrical investigations, Gosha-jinki-gan (1.0 g/kg, i.d.) increased bladder capacity as well as micturition threshold pressure. In addition, it decreased the frequency of(More)
Sairei-to (TJ-114), a Japanese traditional medicine, has been used clinically for the treatment of various edematous disorders. The inhibitory effect on edema may be dependent on the diuretic response to TJ-114. This study was conducted to clarify the mechanism of diuresis. Pentobarbital-anesthetized rats were infused with a saline solution intravenously(More)
This paper examines the contribution of stimulus processing to animal logics. In the classic functionalist S-O-R view of learning (and cognition), stimuli provide the raw material to which the organism applies its cognitive processes-its logic, which may be taxon-specific. Stimuli may contribute to the logic of the organism's response, and may do so in(More)
Twelve pigeons ( Columba livia) were trained on a go/no-go schedule to discriminate between two kinds of movement patterns of dots, which to human observers appear to be "intentional" and "non-intentional" movements. In experiment 1, the intentional motion stimulus contained one dot (a "wolf") that moved systematically towards another dot as though stalking(More)