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Adiponectin (Ad) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates energy homeostasis and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the signaling pathways that mediate the metabolic effects of Ad remain poorly identified. Here we show that phosphorylation and activation of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are stimulated with globular and full-length(More)
An adipocyte-derived peptide, adiponectin (also known as GBP28), is decreased in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide scans have mapped a diabetes susceptibility locus to chromosome 3q27, where the adiponectin gene (APM1) is located. Herein, we present evidence of an association between frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions 45(More)
Glucose metabolism in glycolysis and in mitochondria is pivotal to glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. One or more factors derived from glycolysis other than pyruvate appear to be required for the generation of mitochondrial signals that lead to insulin secretion. The electrons of the glycolysis-derived reduced form of nicotinamide(More)
Teeth are formed by reciprocal interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme in the first pharyngeal arch. Although the contribution of midbrain and hindbrain crest cells to the first pharyngeal arch has been previously examined in rodent embryos, no direct evidence exists that these cells are actually involved in the dental mesenchyme. In order to(More)
Agonist-induced activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is known to cause adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. The biological role of PPAR gamma was investigated by gene targeting. Homozygous PPAR gamma-deficient embryos died at 10.5-11.5 dpc due to placental dysfunction. Quite unexpectedly, heterozygous(More)
The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin has been proposed to play important roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, and it has been reported to exhibit putative antiatherogenic properties in vitro. In this study we generated adiponectin-deficient mice to directly investigate whether adiponectin has a physiological protective(More)
The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In this study, we analyzed globular domain adiponectin (gAd) transgenic (Tg) mice crossed with leptin-deficient ob/ob or apoE-deficient mice. Interestingly, despite an unexpected similar body weight, gAd Tg ob/ob(More)
Voltage-sensitive ion channels play fundamental roles in the regulation of cardiac function by various neurotransmitters. Endothelins have strong positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, for which recent studies have implicated various intracellular mechanisms. However, very little is known about the underlying ion-channel regulation by the peptide. We(More)
Glucokinase (Gck) functions as a glucose sensor for insulin secretion, and in mice fed standard chow, haploinsufficiency of beta cell-specific Gck (Gck(+/-)) causes impaired insulin secretion to glucose, although the animals have a normal beta cell mass. When fed a high-fat (HF) diet, wild-type mice showed marked beta cell hyperplasia, whereas Gck(+/-) mice(More)
A decrease in plasma adiponectin levels has been shown to contribute to the development of diabetes. However, it remains uncertain whether adiponectin plays a role in the regulation of insulin secretion. In this study, we investigated whether adiponectin may be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion in vivo and in vitro. The effect of adiponectin(More)