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Filopodia are finger-like protrusions at the leading edge of migrating cells that play a crucial antennal function during cell motility. It is known that actin filaments are bundled hexagonally and provide rigidity to filopodia by virtue of fascin, which plays a central role in actin filament bundling. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their(More)
Many educators and researchers are trying to define statistical literacy for the 21st century. Kimura, a Japanese science educator, has suggested that a key task of statistical literacy is the ability to extract qualitative information from quantitative information, and/or to create new information from qualitative and quantitative information. This article(More)
Electron tomography (ET) is a new technique for high resolution, three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of pleiomorphic macromolecular complexes, such as virus components. By employing this technique, we resolved the 3D structure of Ebola virus nucleocapsid-like (NC-like) structures in the cytoplasm of cells expressing NP, VP24, and VP35: the minimum(More)
The influenza A virus genome consists of eight single-stranded negative-sense RNA (vRNA) segments. Although genome segmentation provides advantages such as genetic reassortment, which contributes to the emergence of novel strains with pandemic potential, it complicates the genome packaging of progeny virions. Here we elucidate, using electron tomography,(More)
Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography was applied to biological specimens such as yeast cells, HEK293 cells and primary culture neurons. These cells, which were embedded in a resin, were cut into 1-microm-thick sections. STEM tomography offers several important advantages including: (1) it is effective even for thick specimens, (2)(More)
Many studies of advanced router features consider only their beneets, not their costs. In this paper, we examine the cost in router complexity of adaptivity and virtual lanes in a class of wormhole routers by examining a set of router designs. Increased router complexity aaects on achievable router latency and bandwidth. Our studies establish the cost of(More)
This study proposes a methodology for predicting product failures occurring due to known failures and causalities. The prediction is based on failure propagation in an integrated model of a product, production process, and quality information (PPQ). This methodology enables a designer to predict new failures. One of the concepts for failure prediction is(More)