Kazuhiko Yamamuro

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Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that the frontal cortex and subcortical structures may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Twelve(More)
While neurons have long been considered the major player in multiple brain functions such as perception, emotion, and memory, glial cells have been relegated to a far lesser position, acting as merely a "glue" to support neurons. Multiple lines of recent evidence, however, have revealed that glial cells such as oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia,(More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most common mental health disorders, characterized by obsessive thoughts and/or compulsive behaviors, which may involve specific disorders in cognition and/or information processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are commonly used as physiological measures of cognitive function as they are easily measured(More)
OBJECTIVE In adults, it is sometimes difficult to discriminate between pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and schizophrenia (SCH) when positive symptoms are not outstanding. We examined whether the Japanese version of the National Adult Reading Test (JART), is a valid scale for evaluating pre-morbid intelligence quotient (IQ) in patients with SCH, and(More)
Despite some slight differences in symptomatology, differential diagnosis of methamphetamine-induced psychosis (MAP) versus schizophrenia can be challenging because both disorders present a large overlap in their clinical symptoms. However, a recent study has shown that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) performed during a cognitive task can be a powerful(More)
OBJECTIVE A subgroup of patients with Tourette's disorder (TD) has symptoms refractory to haloperidol, a standard therapeutic drug for TD. METHODS We report on three cases of pediatric and adolescent patients who were treated with paliperidone extended release. RESULTS In two cases, TD symptoms were remarkably improved by switching from haloperidol to(More)
BACKGROUND Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms can continue through adolescence and adulthood, including difficulty in staying focused, paying attention, and controlling behavior, as well as hyperactivity. While children and adolescents with ADHD have functional impairments at multiple dimensions, there are no objective biological(More)
Few objective biological measures of pharmacological treatment efficacy exist for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although we have previously demonstrated that event-related potentials (ERPs) reflect the effects of osmotic-release methylphenidate in treatment of naïve pediatric patients with ADHD, whether this is true for the therapeutic(More)
AIM Atomoxetine, approved in Japan for the treatment of pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in April 2009, is a nonstimulant that is thought to act presynaptically via the inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive optical tool that can be used to study oxygenation and hemodynamic changes in the(More)
AIM Increasing clinical evidence points to impulsivity as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, little is known about its persistence over time. METHODS In this study, we evaluated the performance of 12 pediatric patients with OCD on the Stroop color-word task, which assesses impulsivity, and compared this with age- and sex-matched(More)