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BACKGROUND Visual motion often provokes vection (the induced perception of self-motion) and postural movement. Postural movement is known to increase during vection, suggesting the same visual motion signal underlies vection and postural control. However, self-motion does not need to be consciously perceived to influence postural control. Therefore, visual(More)
Asthenopia, or visual fatigue, is a frequent complaint from observers of stereoscopic three-dimensional displays. It has been proposed that asthenopia is a consequence of anomalous oculomotor responses generated by conflict between accommodative and convergence stimuli. The hypothesis was examined by measuring accommodation and convergence continuously with(More)
The effect of aging on the time of spontaneous perceptual alternation in binocular rivalry was examined in 59 subjects. An earlier study reported the change of alternation time by comparing middle-age and elderly subjects. We also observed age-related prolongation in alternation time by comparing subjects in a lower age group (20-34 years) with those in(More)
OBJECTIVE Recording of the dynamic behaviour of the near triad during viewing of a three-dimensional (3-D) display is attempted. This may then be used to identify the possible origin of asthenopia and other ocular problems which occur whilst viewing such displays. METHODS Subjects viewed a 3-D display through an image splitter. Video recordings of ocular(More)
The oculomotor synergy as expressed by the CA/C and AC/A ratios was investigated to examine its influence on our previous observation that whereas convergence responses to stereoscopic images are generally stable, some individuals exhibit significant accommodative overshoot. Using a modified video refraction unit while viewing a stereoscopic LCD,(More)
The recent discovery of melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) has led to a fundamental reassessment of non-image forming processing, such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex. In the conventional view of retinal physiology, rods and cones were assumed to be the only photoreceptors in the eye and were, therefore,(More)
The background, theories, and observations on visual stress possibly caused by viewing stereoscopic motion images are reviewed. Visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images is a safety issue. Fatigue is possible caused by the discrepancy between accommodative and convergence stimuli that are included in the image. Studies on accommodation and convergence(More)
BACKGROUND Taking advantage of developed image technology, it is expected that image presentation would be utilized to promote health in the field of medical care and public health. To accumulate knowledge on biomedical effects induced by image presentation, an essential prerequisite for these purposes, studies on autonomic responses in more than one(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of the portable Grand Seiko FR-5000 autorefractor to allow objective, continuous, open-field measurement of accommodation and pupil size for the investigation of the visual response to real-world environments and changes in the optical components of the eye. METHODS The FR-5000 projects a(More)