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The reason why vulnerabilities to mutant polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins are different among neuronal subtypes is mostly unknown. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of three types of primary neurons expressing huntingtin (htt) or ataxin-1. We found that heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), a well known chaperone molecule protecting neurons in(More)
Oct-3/4 (Oct-3/Oct-4/POU5F1) is a critical regulator of embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation, though its role in tissue stem cells that persist in differentiated tissues has not been shown. Here, we show that Oct-3/4 is expressed in neurospheres (NS) composed of neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells and that up- or down-regulation of Oct-3/4 by(More)
Transcriptional disturbance is implicated in the pathology of polyglutamine diseases, including Huntington's disease (HD). However, it is unknown whether transcriptional repression leads to neuronal death or what forms that death might take. We found transcriptional repression-induced atypical death (TRIAD) of neurons to be distinct from apoptosis,(More)
The spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) gene product, Ataxin-7 (ATXN7), localizes to the nucleus and has been shown to function as a component of the TATA-binding protein-free TAF-containing-SPT3-TAF9-GCN5-acetyltransferase transcription complex, although cytoplasmic localization of ATXN7 in affected neurons of human SCA7 patients has also been detected.(More)
It is hypothesized that a common underlying mechanism links multiple neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (TERA)/valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 directly binds to multiple polyglutamine disease proteins (huntingtin, ataxin-1, ataxin-7 and androgen receptor) via polyglutamine sequence. Although normal(More)
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a nuclear protein homologous to the high-mobility group B1 family of proteins. It is known to be released from cells and to act as a trophic factor for dividing cells. In this study HDGF was increased in spinal motor neurons of a mouse model of motor neuron degeneration, polyglutamine-tract-binding protein-1 (PQBP-1)(More)
By using direct immunocytochemistry of BrU incorporated to RNA in the nuclei, we evaluated the effect of mutant huntingtin and ataxin-1 on general transcription in primary cortical and cerebellar neurons. Our quantitative analyses clearly showed that these mutant polyglutamine disease proteins repress general transcription. In addition, we found that(More)
Neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative diseases is not fully understood. Here we report that mutant huntingtin (Htt), a causative gene product of Huntington's diseases (HD) selectively induces a new form of necrotic cell death, in which endoplasmic reticulum (ER) enlarges and cell body asymmetrically balloons and finally ruptures. Pharmacological and(More)
We previously reported transcriptional repression-induced atypical cell death of neuron (TRIAD), a new type of necrosis that is mainly regulated by Hippo pathway signaling and distinct from necroptosis regulated by RIP1/3 pathway. Here, we examined the ultrastructural and biochemical features of neuronal cell death in the brains of human HD patients in(More)