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It is generally accepted that the precision grip and independent finger movements (IFMs) in monkey and man are controlled by the direct (monosynaptic) corticomotoneuronal (CM) pathway. This view is based on previous observations that pyramidotomy causes near permanent deficits of IFMs. However, in addition to the direct CM pathway, pyramidotomy interrupts(More)
We investigated the effects of immobilization on the maximal motoneuronal firing rate recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) during voluntary isometric contraction. In five human subjects, the middle finger, index finger, and thumb were immobilized for 1 week in a fiber-glass cast, which kept FDI in a shortened position. During a maximal(More)
Somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs), corresponding with electrical median nerve stimulation, were measured using an MRI-linked, whole-head MEG system. In total 184 hemispheres, SEFs were measured, involving 22 normal volunteers and 70 patients with intracranial lesions. The first SEF peak appeared 20.2 +/- 1.5 msec (mean +/- S.D.) after stimulation.(More)
All bodily movements stimulate peripheral receptors that activate neurons in the brain and spinal cord through afferent feedback. How these reafferent signals are processed within the CNS during movement is a key question in motor control. We investigated cutaneous sensory-evoked potentials in the spinal cord, primary somatosensory and motor cortex, and(More)
Candidate propriospinal neurons (PNs) that mediate disynaptic pyramidal excitation to forelimb motoneurons were studied in the C3-C4 segments in anesthetized macaque monkeys (n = 10). A total of 177 neurons were recorded (145 extracellularly, 48 intracellularly, and 16 both) in laminae VI-VII. Among these, 86 neurons (73 extracellularly, 14 intracellularly(More)
To date, there is no effective therapy for spinal cord injury, and many patients could benefit dramatically from at least partial restoration of arm and hand function. Despite a substantial body of research investigating intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) in frogs, rodents and cats, little is known about upper-limb responses to cervical stimulation in the(More)
OBJECTIVES Volumetric CT using a cone beam has been developed by several manufacturers for dentomaxillofacial imaging. The purpose of this study was to measure doses for implant planning with cone beam volumetric imaging (CBVI) in comparison with conventional multidetector CT (MDCT). METHODS The two CBVI systems used were a 3D Accuitomo (J. Morita),(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the anchorage potential of the titanium mini-implant for orthodontic intrusion of the mandibular posterior teeth. Six mini-implants were surgically placed around the mandibular third premolars on each side in 3 adult male beagle dogs. On the buccal site, three mini-implants were placed distal to the apex of the distal(More)
During normal voluntary movements, re-afferent sensory input continuously converges on the spinal circuits that are activated by descending motor commands. This time-varying input must either be synergistically combined with the motor commands or be appropriately suppressed to minimize interference. The earliest suppression could be produced by presynaptic(More)
Neurogranin, neuromodulin, and MARCKS are among the most prominent substrates of protein kinase C (PKC) in the mammalian brain. These phosphoproteins were dephosphorylated by three isoforms of rat brain calcineurin, also known as calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein phosphatase (CaMPP). The three CaMPP isozymes dephosphorylate neurogranin, the most favorable(More)