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Artificial control of phage specificity may contribute to practical applications, such as the therapeutic use of phages and the detection of bacteria by their specific phages. To change the specificity of phage infection, gene products (gp) 37 and 38, expressed at the tip of the long tail fiber of T2 phage, were exchanged with those of PP01 phage, an(More)
Twenty six phages infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7 were screened from various sources. Among them, nine caused visible lysis of E. coli O157:H7 cells in LB liquid medium. However, prolonged incubation of E. coli cells and phage allowed the emergence of phage-resistant cells. The susceptibility of the phage-resistant cells to the nine phages was(More)
A previously green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled PP01 virulent bacteriophage, specific to Escherichia coli O157:H7, was used to construct lysozyme-inactivated GFP-labeled PP01 phage (PP01e-/GFP). The new recombinant phage lacked lytic activity because of the inactivation of gene e, which produces the lysozyme responsible for cell lysis. Gene e was(More)
Staining of esterase-active bacteria with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) has been used to evaluate the viability of various types of cell. However, the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria prevents CFDA from permeating into the cell. Although EDTA can increase the permeability of the outer membrane allowing CFDA to enter the cells, it was(More)
To investigate the therapeutical use of phage mixture for controlling gastrointestinal Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted. Three phages, SP15, SP21, and SP22 were selected from 26 phage stock screened from feces of stock animals and sewage influent. Addition of single or binary phage to the E. coli cell(More)
To breed resistance to an assortment of infectious phages, continuous cultures of Escherichia coli JM109 grown in a chemostat were exposed to phage mixtures prepared from sewage influent. Four sequential chemostat-grown cultures were each infected with a different phage mixture. At the end of a chemostat run, one phage-resistant colony was isolated and used(More)
Plant-cultured cells are often highly heterogeneous in secondary metabolite productivity. The industrial application for large-scale metabolite production requires establishment of a stable high-producing cell line. In this study, image analysis of the individual cell is investigated as a method for evaluation of a heterogeneous cell population, and(More)
The susceptibility of mastitis-causing Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to two commonly used antibiotics, tetracycline and penicillin G, was tested in raw milk and in Muller-Hinton (MH) broth by introducing a pH indicator, bromocresol purple, which was shown to be a simple, sensitive, and rapid method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of(More)
To verify the hypothesis of cryptic growth and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state, survival responses of Escherichia coli cells were examined under oligotrophic microcosm conditions for an extended period. In the case of filtered distilled water at 4 degrees C, E. coli cells definitely entered the VBNC state within 56 days. However, culturability and(More)
The housefly (Musca domestica) is an important host for a variety of bacteria, including some pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant strains. To further investigate the relationship between the housefly and the bacteria it harbors, it is necessary to understand the fate of microorganisms during the larval metamorphosis. The major bacterial communities in three(More)