Learn More
Direct splitting of water using a particulate photocatalyst would be a good way to produce clean and recyclable hydrogen on a large scale, and in the past 30 years various photocatalysts have been found that function under visible light. Here we describe an advance in the catalysis of the overall splitting of water under visible light: the new catalyst is a(More)
Cohesive interactions between Porphyromonas gingivalis and plaque-forming bacteria, such as Streptococcus oralis, are considered to play an important role in the colonization of P. gingivalis in periodontal sites. Although P. gingivalis fimbriae have been reported to mediate coaggregation with S. oralis, the S. oralis molecule involved has not been(More)
Ca(2+)-dependent CaMKIIalpha activation with autophosphorylation plays an essential role in learning and memory. The regulation of CaMKIIalpha by dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) has been demonstrated. We addressed whether the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) that is abundant in the brain could be involved in the regulation of CaMKIIalpha.(More)
The ability of mammalian cytidine deaminases encoded by the APOBEC3 (A3) genes to restrict a broad number of endogenous retroelements and exogenous retroviruses, including murine leukemia virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, is now well established. The RNA editing family member apolipoprotein B (apo B)-editing catalytic subunit 1 (APOBEC1; A1)(More)
Clp proteases and chaperones are ubiquitous among prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and in many pathogenic bacteria the Clp stress response system is also involved in regulation of virulence properties. In this study, the roles of ClpB, ClpC, and ClpXP in stress resistance, homotypic and heterotypic biofilm formation, and intracellular invasion in the oral(More)
Researchers are intensively investigating photochemical water splitting as a means of converting solar to chemical energy in the form of fuels. Hydrogen is a key solar fuel because it can be used directly in combustion engines or fuel cells, or combined catalytically with CO(2) to make carbon containing fuels. Different approaches to solar water splitting(More)
Somatic hypermutation in B cells is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase-catalyzed C→U deamination at immunoglobulin variable regions. Here we investigate the role of the germinal centre-associated nuclear protein (GANP) in enhancing the access of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to immunoglobulin variable regions. We show that the(More)
The Src homology (SH)2-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP) negatively regulates a variety of immune responses through inhibitory immune receptors. In SHIP(-/-) animals, we found that the number of early lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow was significantly reduced and accompanied by expansion of myeloid cells. We exploited an in vitro system using(More)