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BACKGROUND Antibody-mediated and cytotoxic T cell-mediated pathogenicity have been implicated as the autoimmune pathophysiologic mechanisms in Rasmussen's encephalitis. METHODS The authors investigated autoantibodies against the NMDA glutamate receptor (GluR) epsilon2 subunit and their epitopes in serum and CSF samples from 15 patients with chronic(More)
The rat embryonic brain was probed with anti-d-aspartic acid (d-Asp) antiserum at different stages of development. At gestational day (E) 12, weak immunoreactivity (IR) of d-Asp was apparent at the hindbrain, midbrain and caudal forebrain, whereas it became more intense and extended over the whole brain at E20. However, IR markedly decreased after(More)
We found a high concentration (1030 pmol per pineal gland) of D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) in the pineal gland of 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The content of D-Asp decreased with age, being 210 and 33 pmol per pineal gland in 28- and 45-week-old rats respectively. The proportion of D-Asp [(D-Asp/total Asp) x 100] also decreased with age, declining from(More)
Large amounts of D-aspartate (D-Asp) are present in the rat adrenal and pituitary glands. D-Asp is thought to be synthesized in the mammalian body and also accumulates in various tissues following intraperitoneal or intravenous administration. This report examines the origins of D-Asp in the adrenal and pituitary glands. We administered D-Asp to male rats(More)
Significant amounts of D-aspartate (Asp) are found in mammalian tissues and D-Asp is presumed to play some significant, but as yet undefined physiological role. However, it is not known whether D-Asp is synthesized in mammals. In this study, we addressed this issue in cultured rat pinealocytes, parenchymal cells of the pineal gland, which contain(More)
The occurrence of free D-amino acids and aspartate racemases in several hyperthermophilic archaea was investigated. Aspartic acid in all the hyperthermophilic archaea was highly racemized. The ratio of D-aspartic acid to total aspartic acid was in the range of 43.0 to 49.1%. The crude extracts of the hyperthermophiles exhibited aspartate racemase activity(More)
BACKGROUND One of the most critical questions in immunosurveillance is whether differences between individuals with regards to natural immunological host defence can predict future development of cancer. Although this question has so far remained open, there are clear indications of significant roles of several naturally cytotoxic lymphocytes in preventing(More)
Here we show that secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) that is immunochemically indistinguishable from type II sPLA2 is (i) stored in neuroendocrine cells, (ii) released in response to neurotransmitters or depolarization, and (iii) involved in the regulation of catecholamine secretion by these cells. Rat brain synaptic vesicle fractions contained PLA2(More)
Specific polyclonal antibody was raised against D-aspartate (D-Asp) which had been conjugated to glutaraldehyde and was purified by affinity chromatography. Immunohistochemical staining of rat pineal gland with the antibody demonstrated the presence of D-Asp in the cytoplasm of pinealocytes, the predominant cell type in this gland. D-Asp immunoreactivity(More)
Developmental changes in cellular localization of D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) were investigated in rat adrenal gland with polyclonal anti-D-Asp antibody. At 1 and 3 weeks of age, immunoreactivity (IR) toward this amino acid was intense in the cytoplasm of cells in the zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR) of the adrenal cortex but was less so in the(More)