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Blue color in flowers is due mainly to anthocyanins, and a considerable part of blue coloration can be attributed to metal-complexed anthocyanins. However, the mechanism of metal ion transport into vacuoles and subsequent flower color development has yet to be fully explored. Previously, we studied the mechanism of blue color development specifically at the(More)
The entire flower of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Murasakizuisho is purple, except the bottom, which is blue. To elucidate the mechanism of the different color development in the same petal, we prepared protoplasts from the purple and blue epidermal regions and measured the flavonoid composition by HPLC, the vacuolar pH by a proton-selective microelectrode, and(More)
Flowers of tulip cv. 'Murasakizuisho' have a purple perianth except for the bottom region, which is blue in color even though it has the same anthocyanin, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, as the entire perianth. The development of the blue coloration in the perianth bottom is due to complexation by anthocyanin, flavonol and iron (Fe), as well as a vacuolar iron(More)
6-Tuliposide B is a secondary metabolite occurring specifically in tulip anthers. Recently, a potent antibacterial activity of 6-tuliposide B has been reported. However, its molecular target has not yet been established, nor its action mechanism. To shed light on such issues, 6-tuliposide B and tulipalin B analogues were synthesized and a structure-activity(More)
An enzyme that catalyzes the stoichiometric conversion of 6-tuliposide into tulipalin was purified and characterized from bulbs of Tulipa gesneriana. The enzyme appeared to be a dimer, the relative molecular mass (Mr) of each subunit being 34,900; it had maximum activity and stability at neutral pH and moderate temperature. The enzyme preferentially acted(More)
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