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The notions of health, illness, and disease are fuzzy-theoretically analyzed. They present themselves as non-Aristotelian concepts violating basic principles of classical logic. A recursive scheme for defining the controversial notion of disease is proposed that also supports a concept of fuzzy disease. A sketch is given of the prototype resemblance theory(More)
The concept of medical diagnosis is reconstructed and its syntax, semantics, and pragmatics are analyzed. It is shown that medical diagnosis is relative to a complex diagnostic structure part of which are the method of diagnostic reasoning and the knowledge base used. Clinical knowledge-based systems research is interpreted as the advent of an engineering(More)
Progress in the theory and practice of artificial intelligence in medicine requires awareness of basic issues in medical problem solving. To stimulate discussion and research on this subject, in a series of articles some logical, methodological and meta-theoretical problems of clinical practice will be studied. The present paper reconstructs clinical(More)
Because of its unorthodoxy, it has been and will continue to be controversial for some time. Eventually, though, the theory of fuzzy sets is likely to be recognized as a natural development in the evolution of scienti®c thinking. In retrospect, the skepticism about its usefulness will be viewed as a manifestation of the human attachment to tradition and(More)
Recent advances in the foundations of fuzzy theory facilitated by Bart Kosko's discovery of the fuzzy hypercube are of high relevance to artificial intelligence in medicine research. The new concepts of set inclusion, equality, and similarity are therefore reported in this paper. A unifying notion of a Lotfi Zadeh space is also introduced to show that Bart(More)
In a previous paper the concept of disease was fuzzy-logically analyzed and a sketch was given of a prototype resemblance theory of disease (Sadegh-Zadeh (2000). J. Med. Philos., 25:605-38). This theory is outlined in the present paper. It demonstrates what it means to say that the concept of disease is a nonclassical one and, therefore, not amenable to(More)
A metric space - dubbed the fuzzy polynucleotide space - is presented for diagnostic purposes in the widest sense to measure the degree of difference and similarity between sequences of nucleic acids. To this end, these acids are transformed to ordered fuzzy sets. They thus become representable as points in n-dimensional unit hypercubes that may be endowed(More)
Intelligent clinical judgement is one of the main goals of medical artificial intelligence. To achieve that goal requires a reliable nosological language. Such a language is not yet available, however. In this paper the notions of health, disease, and nosology are analyzed. It is shown that health and disease as generic concepts, and also individual disease(More)
The concept of etiology is analyzed and the possibilities and limitations of deterministic, probabilistic, and fuzzy etiology are explored. Different kinds of formal structures for the relation of causation are introduced which enable us to explicate the notion of cause on qualitative, comparative, and quantitative levels. The conceptual framework developed(More)