Kayvon Modjarrad

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The prefusion state of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) glycoprotein is the target of most RSV-neutralizing activity in human sera, but its metastability has hindered characterization. To overcome this obstacle, we identified prefusion-specific antibodies that were substantially more potent than the prophylactic antibody palivizumab. The(More)
The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) as a cause of severe respiratory disease highlights the need for effective approaches to CoV vaccine development. Efforts focused solely on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral Spike (S) glycoprotein may not optimize neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Here we show that(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of small changes in plasma levels of HIV-1 RNA on the risk of heterosexual transmission or disease progression to an AIDS-defining event or death. DESIGN AND METHODS We systematically reviewed the published literature for studies that evaluated small viral load changes among antiretroviral-therapy-naive, adult populations.(More)
BACKGROUND Routine opt-out provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) remains underutilized in sub-Saharan Africa. By selectively targeting clients who either volunteer or have clinical indications of HIV disease, standard approaches to HIV counseling and testing are presumed more cost-efficient than PITC. METHODS One thousand two hundred(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate both the use of cholesterol-lowering medications as a group and the use of statins specifically with regard to the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS A case-control study was conducted using data from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a population-based prospective study of adults enrolled from 4 communities in(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with intestinal helminths may stimulate dysfunctional immune responses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the impact of antihelminthic treatment on plasma concentrations of HIV-1 RNA.Methods. We conducted a prospective study of 54 HIV-1- and helminth-coinfected and(More)
Sub-Saharan Africa is disproportionately burdened by intestinal helminth and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Recent evidence suggests detrimental immunologic effects from concomitant infection with the two pathogens. Few studies, however, have assessed the prevalence of and predictors for intestinal helminth infection among HIV-1-infected(More)
Co-infections contribute to HIV-related pathogenesis and often increase viral load in HIV-infected people. We did a systematic review to assess the effect of treating key co-infections on plasma HIV-1-RNA concentrations in low-income countries. We identified 18 eligible studies for review: two on tuberculosis, two on malaria, six on helminths, and eight on(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is estimated to claim more lives among infants <1 year old than any other single pathogen, except malaria, and poses a substantial global health burden. Viral entry is mediated by a type I fusion glycoprotein (F) that transitions from a metastable prefusion (pre-F) to a stable postfusion (post-F) trimer. A highly(More)