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Normal aging in humans and rodents is accompanied by a progressive increase in adiposity. To investigate the role of hypothalamic neuronal circuits in this process, we used a Cre-lox strategy to create mice with specific and progressive degeneration of hypothalamic neurons that express agouti-related protein (Agrp) or proopiomelanocortin (Pomc),(More)
OBJECTIVE The hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) exerts diverse, beneficial effects on energy balance and insulin sensitivity when administered systemically to rodents with diet-induced obesity (DIO). The current studies investigate whether central FGF21 treatment recapitulates these effects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS After preliminary(More)
OBJECTIVE Analysis of energy expenditure (EE) in mice is essential to obesity research. Since EE varies with body mass, comparisons between lean and obese mice are confounded unless EE is normalized to account for body mass differences. We 1) assessed the validity of ratio-based EE normalization involving division of EE by either total body mass (TBM) or(More)
OBJECTIVE Depletion of body fat stores during uncontrolled, insulin-deficient diabetes (uDM) results in markedly reduced plasma leptin levels. This study investigated the role of leptin deficiency in the genesis of severe insulin resistance and related metabolic and neuroendocrine derangements induced by uDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adult male Wistar(More)
Systemic inflammatory signals can disrupt the physiological regulation of energy balance, causing anorexia and weight loss. In the current studies, we investigated whether MyD88, the primary, but not exclusive, intracellular signal transduction pathway for Toll-like receptor 4 and IL-1 receptor I, is necessary for anorexia and weight loss to occur in(More)
The goal of this study was to identify the most important variables affecting bioluminescent ATP, ADP and AMP measurements in plasma and to develop an assay that takes these variables into account. Blood samples were drawn from conscious dogs. A 'stop solution' containing EDTA was prepared, which greatly retarded plasma ATP degradation by chelating Mg(+2)(More)
Systemic inflammatory stimuli cause anorexia and weight loss by disrupting the physiological regulation of energy balance. Mice lacking MyD88, an intracellular mediator of signal transduction activated by Toll-like receptor 4 or IL-1beta receptors, are resistant to anorexia induced by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), despite a significant(More)
Mechanisms regulating spontaneous physical activity remain poorly characterized despite evidence of influential genetic and acquired factors. We evaluated ambulatory activity and wheel running in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and in wild-type mice rendered hypoleptinemic by fasting in both the presence and absence of subcutaneous leptin administration. In(More)
The role of P1 receptors and P2Y1 receptors in coronary vasodilator responses to adenine nucleotides was examined in the isolated guinea pig heart. Bolus arterial injections of nucleotides were made in hearts perfused at constant pressure. Peak increase in flow was measured before and after addition of purinoceptor antagonists. Both the P1 receptor(More)
Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment(More)