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Studies were performed to test the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) contribute to the pathogenesis of aldosterone/salt-induced renal injury. Rats were given 1% NaCl to drink and were treated with one of the following combinations for 6 weeks: vehicle (0.5% ethanol, SC, n=6); aldosterone (0.75(More)
The development of glomerulonephritis causes glomerular injury and renal dysfunction and is thought to increase renin release, thus activating the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The aims of this study were to demonstrate activation of the intrarenal RAS and determine the effects of direct renin inhibition (DRI) on the progression of glomerulonephritis.(More)
The central nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis mainly via controlling the autonomic output to the visceral organs. The autonomic output is regulated by hormones and nutrients to maintain adequate energy and glucose homeostasis. Insulin action is mediated via insulin receptors (IR) resulting in(More)
We recently reported that urinary excretion rates of angiotensinogen provide a specific index of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system status in angiotensin II-dependent hypertensive rats. Angiotensinogen concentrations in mouse plasma are thought to be much lower than those in rat plasma; however, detailed information is deficient due to lack of direct(More)
We reported previously that urinary angiotensinogen (UAGT) levels provide a specific index of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) status in angiotensin II-dependent hypertensive rats. To study this system in humans, we recently developed a human angiotensinogen ELISA. To test the hypothesis that UAGT is increased in hypertensive patients, we(More)
This study was performed in transgenic mice to test the hypothesis that the selective intrarenal overproduction of ANG II increases intrarenal mouse (m) angiotensinogen (AGT) expression. We used the following three groups: 1) single transgenic mice (group A, n = 14) expressing human (h) AGT only in the kidney, 2) double-transgenic mice (group D, n = 13)(More)
The nongenomic effects of aldosterone have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. Aldosterone-induced nongenomic effects are attributable in part to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), a classical mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1), a newly identified MAP kinase,(More)
We recently reported that urinary excretion rates of angiotensinogen (U(AGT)) provide a specific index of intrarenal renin-angiotensin (ANG) system (RAS) status in ANG II-dependent hypertensive rats. When this is shown to be applicable to human subjects, a diagnostic test to identify those hypertensive patients most likely to respond to an RAS blockade(More)
Whether temporary angiotensin II (AngII) blockade at the prediabetic stage attenuates renal injury in type 2 diabetic OLETF rats later in life was investigated. OLETF rats were treated with an AT(1) receptor antagonist (olmesartan, 0.01% in food), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (temocapril, 0.01% in food), a combination of the two, or hydralazine(More)
We previously reported that urinary excretion rates of angiotensinogen (AGT) provide a specific index of the activity of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system in angiotensin II-dependent hypertensive rats. Meanwhile, we have recently developed direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to measure plasma and urinary AGT in humans. This study was(More)