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The presence of an "internal clock" in the brain has been assumed to underlie the information processing related to time. This clock plays a critical role in time keeping and time perception, which are closely associated with integrated functions in the brain. To identify the brain areas recruited for time keeping and time perception, we performed positron(More)
UNLABELLED Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a disease characterized by chronic, profound, disabling, and unexplained fatigue. Although it is hypothesized that brain inflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of CFS/ME, there is no direct evidence of neuroinflammation in patients with CFS/ME. Activation of microglia or(More)
UNLABELLED P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a pivotal role in limiting the penetration of xenobiotic compounds into the brain at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), where its expression increases with maturation in rats. We investigated developmental changes in P-gp function in the BBB of nonhuman primates using PET with R-(11)C-verapamil, a PET radiotracer useful(More)
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is unique among the primates in its small body size, reproductive efficacy, and characteristic social behavior, making it useful as an animal model in neuroscientific research. To assess the brain serotonergic systems, we investigated the binding of [(11)C]-3-amino-4-(2-dimetylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile(More)
A system for the measurement of brain activity in conscious monkeys by positron emission tomography (PET) was established in the present study. The signal/noise ratio was maximal around 40 s for data acquisition in the PET scan with 15O-labeled water. When the monkey was stimulated by vibration and subtraction images of the data sets from regional cerebral(More)
Cortical spreading depression (SD) is a self-propagating wave of depolarization that is thought to be an underling mechanism of migraine aura. Growing evidence demonstrates that cortical SD triggers neurogenic meningeal inflammation and contributes to migraine headaches via subsequent activation of trigeminal afferents. Although direct and indirect evidence(More)
Experimentally induced changes in the central visual pathway were studied by using positron emission tomography in monkeys with unilateral hypertension glaucoma. In 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose studies, monocular visual stimulation of the affected eye yielded significantly reduced neural responses in the occipital visuocortical areas. The response(More)
The equivalent mixture of cis-3-hexenol and trans-2-hexenal (hexenol/hexenal), 'green odor', is known to have a healing effect on the psychological damage caused by stress. Behavioral studies in humans and monkeys have revealed that hexenol/hexenal prevents the prolongation of reaction time caused by fatigue. In the present study, we investigated which(More)
Physiological and lesion studies have shown that the anterior inferior temporal (IT) cortex (aITC) is involved in the color vision of macaque monkeys. However, some functional imaging studies using awake monkeys contradicted the involvement of aITC in color vision. Thus, in most of the imaging studies, cortical activation has been observed during a fixation(More)
Electrical activity of the tracheal smooth muscle was studied using extracellular bipolar electrodes in 37 decerebrate, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated dogs. A spontaneous oscillatory potential that consisted of a slow sinusoidal wave of 0.57 +/- 0.13 (SD) Hz mean frequency but lacked a fast spike component was recorded from 15 dogs. Lung collapse(More)