Kaylene J. Raynes

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Here we provide definitive evidence that chloroquine (CQ) uptake in Plasmodium falciparum is determined by binding to ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FPIX). Specific proteinase inhibitors that block the degradation of hemoglobin and stop the generation of FPIX also inhibit CQ uptake. Food vacuole enzymes can generate cell-free binding, using human hemoglobin as a(More)
A series of short chain chloroquine (CQ) derivatives have been synthesized in one step from readily available starting materials. The diethylamine function of CQ is replaced by shorter alkylamine groups (4-9) containing secondary or tertiary terminal nitrogens. Some of these derivatives are significantly more potent than CQ against a CQ resistant strain of(More)
A new type of bisquinoline antimalarial, in which the basic side chain of chloroquine is retained, has been evaluated. Nine bisamides were prepared from aliphatic diacids with 6-amino- and 8-amino-((4-(diethylamino)-1-methylbutyl)amino)quinoline, and screened against chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. The(More)
Quinoline compounds, such as chloroquine, are used widely to treat malaria; however, the malarial parasite is rapidly becoming resistant to the drugs currently available. Presently, rational drug design is hindered considerably due to the mode of action of chloroquine being poorly understood. We rely on serendipity, rather than solid structural evidence, to(More)
We report the synthesis of two series of novel bisquinoline compounds that inhibit the growth of both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. To study the molecular basis of the action of these novel antimalarial drugs, we examined their ability to inhibit haem polymerisation in the presence and absence of parasite(More)
A new series of 4-aminoquinoline Mannich base derivatives have been synthesized, in which the 3'-diethylamino function of amodiaquine (AQ) is replaced by a 3'-tert-butylamino group and an aliphatic hydrocarbon entity is incorporated into the 5'-position of the 4'-hydroxyanilino side chain. Seven alkyl Mannich base derivatives were screened and found to be(More)
Ten novel, second-generation, fluorinated ether and ester analogues of the potent first-generation analogues artemether (4a) and arteether (4b) have been designed and synthesized. All of the compounds demonstrate high antimalarial potency in vitro against the chloroquine-sensitive HB3 and -resistant K1 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The most potent(More)
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