Kay S. Arnold

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Previous in vivo turnover studies suggested that retarded clearance of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from the plasma of some hypercholesterolemic patients is due to LDL with defective receptor binding. The present study examined this postulate directly by receptor binding experiments. The LDL from a hypercholesterolemic patient (G.R.) displayed a reduced(More)
Transgene expression of the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme (APOBEC-1) causes dysplasia and carcinoma in mouse and rabbit livers. Using a modified differential display technique, we identified a novel mRNA (NAT1 for novel APOBEC-1 target no. 1) that is extensively edited at multiple sites in these livers. The aberrant editing alters encoded amino(More)
Apolipoprotein (apo-) B mRNA editing is the deamination of cytidine that creates a new termination codon and produces a truncated version of apo-B (apo-B48). The cytidine deaminase catalytic subunit [apo-B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 1 (APOBEC-1)] of the multiprotein editing complex has been identified. We generated transgenic rabbits and mice(More)
Familial defective apolipoprotein B100 (FDB) is caused by a mutation of apo-B100 (R3500Q) that disrupts the receptor binding of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which leads to hypercholesterolemia and premature atherosclerosis. In this study, mutant forms of human apo-B were expressed in transgenic mice, and the resulting human recombinant LDL were purified(More)
In a group of 110 subjects with severe coronary artery disease, two were heterozygous for the apolipoprotein (apo) B arginine3,500----glutamine mutation that characterizes familial defective apo B-100. Both affected subjects were moderately hypercholesterolemic, and their low density lipoproteins (LDLs) were deficient in binding to the LDL receptor.(More)
Blood samples were taken from 20 horses competing in a 100 km endurance ride and plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate and protein measured. Measurements were performed on samples taken before the ride (pre-ride), at the mid point and end of the ride and after a 30 min recovery period (post-ride). Sweat samples were collected(More)
Apolipoprotein (apo) E plays an important role in lipid metabolism, and the major isoforms of apoE (apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4) have significantly different metabolic effects. Apolipoprotein E4 is associated with a higher risk of both heart disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients homozygous for apolipoprotein E2 are predisposed to type III(More)
Apolipoprotein (apo) B mRNA editing is the deamination of C(6666) to uridine, which changes the codon at position 2153 from a genomically encoded glutamine (CAA) to an in-frame stop codon (UAA). The apoB mRNA-editing enzyme complex recognizes the editing region of the apoB pre-mRNA with exquisite precision. Four sequence elements spanning 139 nucleotides(More)
Apolipoprotein (apo-) E3, when combined with the phospholipid dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), binds avidly to apo-B,E (low density lipoprotein) receptors on human fibroblasts. Apolipoprotein E2 isolated from type III hyperlipoproteinemic subjects, which differs from apo-E3 by the presence of cysteine instead of arginine at residue 158, possesses only(More)
Differences in low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-binding affinity among LDL particles of different size were examined in competitive binding assays in human skin fibroblasts and LDL (d = 1.020 to 1.050 g/mL) from subjects with a predominance of large (> or = 272 A), medium (259 to 271 A), and small (< or = 257 A) LDL. Among 57 normolipidemic subjects(More)