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BACKGROUND Male circumcision could provide substantial protection against acquisition of HIV-1 infection. Our aim was to determine whether male circumcision had a protective effect against HIV infection, and to assess safety and changes in sexual behaviour related to this intervention. METHODS We did a randomised controlled trial of 2784 men aged 18-24(More)
BACKGROUND Preexposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs has been effective in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in some trials but not in others. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 2120 HIV-negative women in Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania to receive either a combination of(More)
Since the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS recommended implementation of medical male circumcision (MC) as part of HIV prevention in areas with low MC and high HIV prevalence rates in 2007, the government of Kenya has developed a strategy to circumcise 80% of uncircumcised men within five years. To facilitate the(More)
BACKGROUND Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have confirmed that male circumcision (MC) significantly reduces acquisition of HIV-1 infection among men. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive, prospective evaluation of risk compensation, comparing circumcised versus uncircumcised controls in a sample of RCT participants. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous studies have demonstrated that male circumcision (MC) reduces the incidence of the Type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among heterosexual men by at least half. METHODS One year after the launch of a national Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision program in Kenya, this study conducted 12 focus group discussions among uncircumcised(More)
BACKGROUND In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed male circumcision as an effective HIV prevention strategy. In 2008, the Government of Kenya (GoK) launched the national voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program in Nyanza Province, the geographic home to the Luo, the largest non-circumcising ethnic group in Kenya. Currently, several other(More)
BACKGROUND Few data on the effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition are available. METHODS HIV-seronegative, sexually active, 18-24-year-old Kenyan men participating in a randomized trial of male circumcision provided exfoliated penile cells from 2 anatomical sites (glans/coronal sulcus and shaft) at(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine factors associated with the incidence of adverse events associated with voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for the prevention of HIV infection in Nyanza province, Kenya. METHODS Males aged 12 years or older who underwent VMMC between November 2008 and March 2010 in 16 clinics in three districts were followed through passive(More)
BACKGROUND Several clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), with or without emtricitabine (FTC), as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for reducing the risk of HIV acquisition. Adherence to the study product was insufficient to demonstrate the effectiveness of FTC/TDF in 2 PrEP clinical trials(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Three randomized trials demonstrated male circumcision decreases female-to-male HIV incidence by 60%. Male circumcision research in sub-Saharan Africa has focused on adolescents and adults. Modeling suggests infant male circumcision (IMC) will be cost saving for HIV prevention in high to moderate seroprevalent regions. This study(More)