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BACKGROUND Male circumcision could provide substantial protection against acquisition of HIV-1 infection. Our aim was to determine whether male circumcision had a protective effect against HIV infection, and to assess safety and changes in sexual behaviour related to this intervention. METHODS We did a randomised controlled trial of 2784 men aged 18-24(More)
BACKGROUND Preexposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs has been effective in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in some trials but not in others. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 2120 HIV-negative women in Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania to receive either a combination of(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate sexual practices and risk factors for prevalent HIV infection among young men in Kisumu, Kenya. GOAL The goal of this study was to identify behaviors associated with HIV in Kisumu to maximize the effectiveness of future prevention programs. STUDY DESIGN Lifetime sexual histories were collected from a nested sample of 1337(More)
BACKGROUND Most studies that have found an association between uncircumcised status and infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have compared participants from various demographic backgrounds, among which the prevalence of other risk factors might have varied. We report findings from a study conducted among men within a single ethnic(More)
BACKGROUND In 2007, the World Health Organization endorsed male circumcision as an effective HIV prevention strategy. In 2008, the Government of Kenya (GoK) launched the national voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program in Nyanza Province, the geographic home to the Luo, the largest non-circumcising ethnic group in Kenya. Currently, several other(More)
BACKGROUND FEM-PrEP was unable to determine whether once-daily, oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate reduces the risk of HIV acquisition among women because of low adherence. Self-reported adherence was high, and pill-count data suggested good adherence. Yet, drug concentrations revealed limited pill use. We conducted a follow-up study with(More)
BACKGROUND In certain parts of Africa, type-specific herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) ELISAs may have limited specificity. To date, no study has been conducted to validate HerpeSelect and Kalon type-specific HSV-2 ELISAs using both the Western blot and recombinant gG ELISA inhibition testing as reference standards. METHODS A total of 120 men who were(More)
OBJECTIVE We assessed the protective effect of medical male circumcision (MMC) against HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and genital ulcer disease (GUD) incidence. DESIGN Two thousand, seven hundred and eighty-seven men aged 18-24 years living in Kisumu, Kenya were randomly assigned to circumcision (n=1391) or delayed circumcision (n=1393) and(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence was estimated from 2,705 sexually active, uncircumcised, human immunodeficiency virus seronegative men aged 17-28 years in Kisumu, Kenya. HPV prevalence was 51.1% (95% confidence interval: 49.2-53.0%) in penile cells from the glans/coronal sulcus and/or shaft. HPV prevalence varied by anatomical site, with 46.5%(More)
BACKGROUND There is little information on multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and the potential for type competition in men, yet competition may impact the type-specific efficacy of HPV vaccination. METHODS Among 2702 uncircumcised men in Kisumu, Kenya, who were seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus, the observed numbers of HPV types(More)