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BACKGROUND The systemic inflammatory response to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is incompletely defined, particularly for patients with severe disease. METHODS Analysis of 315 blood samples from 78 inpatients with CDI (cases), 100 inpatients with diarrhea without CDI (inpatient controls), and 137 asymptomatic outpatient controls without CDI was(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can cause severe disease and death, especially in older adults. A better understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes is needed. This study tests the hypotheses that infection with specific ribotypes and presence of stool toxins independently associate with severity and constructs predictive models of(More)
Clostridium difficile is the most commonly identified pathogen among health care-associated infections in the United States. There is a need for accurate and low-cost typing tools that produce comparable data across studies (i.e., portable data) to help characterize isolates during epidemiologic investigations of C. difficile outbreaks and sporadic cases of(More)
OBJECTIVE Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and biomarkers that predict severity of illness are needed. Procalcitonin (PCT), a serum biomarker with specificity for bacterial infections, has been little studied in CDI. We hypothesized that PCT associated with CDI severity. DESIGN Serum PCT levels were measured for 69 cases(More)
Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains problematic, with up to 30 % of individuals diagnosed with primary CDI experiencing at least one episode of recurrence. The success of microbial-based therapeutics, such as fecal microbiota transplantation, for the treatment of recurrent CDI underscores the importance of restoring the microbiota.(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes a mild to moderate colitis in most patients, but some, especially older adults, develop severe, adverse outcomes. Biomarkers predicting outcomes are needed to optimize treatments. This study tested whether fecal calprotectin associated with a composite primary outcome of complicated CDI (intensive care(More)
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant source of healthcare-associated morbidity and mortality. This study investigated whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with adverse outcomes from CDI. Patients with CDI were prospectively enrolled. Charts were reviewed and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured. The primary outcome was a(More)
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