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BACKGROUND Preexposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs has been effective in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in some trials but not in others. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 2120 HIV-negative women in Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania to receive either a combination of(More)
The authors constructed a Markov model as part of a systematic review of cervical cytology conducted at the Duke University Evidence-based Practice Center (Durham, North Carolina) between October 1997 and September 1998. The model incorporated states for human papillomavirus infection (HPV), low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the accuracy of conventional and new methods of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing when used to detect cervical cancer and its precursors. DATA SOURCES Systematic search of English-language literature through October 1999 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, other computerized databases, and hand searching. STUDY SELECTION All studies that compared Pap(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this trial was to determine the effectiveness of 1.0% C31G (SAVVY) in preventing male-to-female vaginal transmission of HIV infection among women at high risk. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS This was a Phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants made up to 12 monthly follow-up visits for HIV(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this trial was to investigate the safety and preliminary effectiveness of a daily dose of 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) versus placebo in preventing HIV infection in women. DESIGN This was a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING The study was conducted between June 2004 and March(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this trial was to determine the effectiveness of 1.0% C31G (SAVVY) in preventing male-to-female vaginal transmission of HIV infection among women at high risk. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS This was a Phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants made up to 12 monthly visits for HIV testing, adverse(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the contraceptive effectivenesses of a polyurethane condom and a standard latex condom. Secondary outcomes of interest were safety, functionality, discontinuation, and acceptability. METHODS We randomized 901 couples to use either the polyurethane condom or a standard latex condom as their only form of contraception. We tested for(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of an antiretroviral (ARV) therapy regimen containing zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and efavirenz (EFV) on the pharmacokinetics of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). DESIGN Open-label, nonrandomized, clinical trial. SETTING University hospital clinic. PATIENT(S) Thirty HIV-infected women; 15 using ARV(More)