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The retina in adult mammals, unlike those in lower vertebrates such as fish and amphibians, is not known to support neurogenesis. However, when injured, the adult mammalian retina displays neurogenic changes, raising the possibility that neurogenic potential may be evolutionarily conserved and could be exploited for regenerative therapy. Here, we show that(More)
Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are highly metastatic with poor prognosis, mainly due to delayed detection. We hypothesized that intercellular communication is critical for metastatic progression. Here, we show that PDAC-derived exosomes induce liver pre-metastatic niche formation in naive mice and consequently increase liver metastatic burden.(More)
PURPOSE Cancers exposed to chemotherapy develop multidrug resistance, a major cause for chemotherapy failure. One mechanism of multidrug resistance development is due to overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in these cancer cells. Thus, a prechemotherapy evaluation of Pgp in cancer cells aids in the design of alternative regimens that can circumvent such(More)
The in vivo effects of administration of the synthetic, functional biomimetic [Cr3O(O2CCH2CH3)6(H2O)3]+ 1 and a naturally occurring, biologically active form of chromium, low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance (LMWCr), to rats are described. Given that the complexes are proposed to function by interacting with insulin receptor, trapping it in its(More)
BACKGROUND It is well known that many malignancies, including pancreatic cancer (PC), possess the ability to evade the immune system by indirectly downregulating the mononuclear cell machinery necessary to launch an effective immune response. This knowledge, in conjunction with the fact that the trancriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been(More)
ABCG2 belongs to the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of transmembrane proteins and is ubiquitously expressed in stem cells including those in the developing nervous system. The ability of ABCG2 to preferentially exclude DNA-intercalating dyes is regarded to be the basis for the enrichment of stem cells or progenitors as dye(low) side population (SP) cells.(More)
Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most lethal human malignancies with poor prognosis. Despite all advances in preclinical research, there have not been significant translation of novel therapies into the clinics. The development of genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models that produce spontaneous pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have increased our(More)
In the retina, as elsewhere in the central nervous system, neurogenesis precedes gliogenesis; that is, the only glia in the retina, Müller cells, are born when the majority of neurons have already been generated. However, our understanding of how the multipotent retinal stem cells/progenitors choose to differentiate along neuronal and glial lineages is(More)
Based on a variety of approaches, evidence suggests that different cell types in the vertebrate retina are generated by multipotential progenitors in response to interactions between cell intrinsic and cell extrinsic factors. The identity of some of the cellular determinants that mediate such interactions has emerged, shedding light on mechanisms underlying(More)