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The retina in adult mammals, unlike those in lower vertebrates such as fish and amphibians, is not known to support neurogenesis. However, when injured, the adult mammalian retina displays neurogenic changes, raising the possibility that neurogenic potential may be evolutionarily conserved and could be exploited for regenerative therapy. Here, we show that(More)
Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and(More)
The canonical Wnt pathway is known to influence multiple developmental events such as patterning, cell proliferation and cell specification. Recent studies have provided evidence of the involvement of the canonical Wnt pathway in the emergence and development of the optic neuroepithelium and its derivatives, particularly the retina. However, the mechanism(More)
In the retina, as elsewhere in the central nervous system, neurogenesis precedes gliogenesis; that is, the only glia in the retina, Müller cells, are born when the majority of neurons have already been generated. However, our understanding of how the multipotent retinal stem cells/progenitors choose to differentiate along neuronal and glial lineages is(More)
BACKGROUND It is well known that many malignancies, including pancreatic cancer (PC), possess the ability to evade the immune system by indirectly downregulating the mononuclear cell machinery necessary to launch an effective immune response. This knowledge, in conjunction with the fact that the trancriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been(More)
The limbal epithelium (LE), a circular and narrow epithelium that separates cornea from conjunctiva, harbors stem cells/progenitors in its basal layer that regenerate cornea. We have previously demonstrated that cells in the basal LE, when removed from their niche and cultured in reduced bond morphogenetic protein signaling, acquire properties of neural(More)
Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most lethal human malignancies with poor prognosis. Despite all advances in preclinical research, there have not been significant translation of novel therapies into the clinics. The development of genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models that produce spontaneous pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have increased our(More)
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is lethal malignancy with very high mortality rate. Absence of sensitive and specific marker(s) is one of the major factors for poor prognosis of PC patients. In pilot studies using small set of patients, secreted acute phase proteins neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) and TGF-β family member macrophage inhibitory(More)
MUC4 is a transmembrane mucin lining the normal colonic epithelium. The aberrant/de novo over-expression of MUC4 is well documented in malignancies of the pancreas, ovary and breast. However, studies have reported the loss of MUC4 expression in the majority of colorectal cancers (CRCs). A MUC4 promoter analysis showed the presence of three putative TCF/LEF(More)
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