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Graded activity of the DPP signaling pathway is critical for specification of dorsal embryonic cell fates in Drosophila. We present evidence that a second BMP ligand, SCW, potentiates DPP activity. Using dominant-negative forms of the type I receptors SAX and TKV, we demonstrate that SAX mediates the SCW signal, while TKV is required for both DPP and SCW(More)
Signaling by TGF beta-related factors requires ligand-induced association between type I and type II transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. In Drosophila, the saxophone (sax) and thick veins (tkv) genes encode type I receptors that mediate signaling by decapentaplegic (dpp), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subgroup of TGF beta-type(More)
Decapentaplegic (dpp), a TGF beta-related ligand, plays a key role in Drosophila development. Although dpp receptors have been isolated, the downstream components of the signaling pathway remain to be identified. We have cloned the schnurri (shn) gene and show that it encodes a putative zinc finger transcription factor homologous to the human major(More)
Axon guidance is regulated by intrinsic factors and extrinsic cues provided by other neurons, glia and target muscles. Dawdle (Daw), a divergent TGF-beta superfamily ligand expressed in glia and mesoderm, is required for embryonic motoneuron pathfinding in Drosophila. In daw mutants, ISNb and SNa axons fail to extend completely and are unable to innervate(More)
Avidin-modified polyaniline (PANI) electrochemically deposited onto a Pt disk electrode has been utilized for direct detection of Escherichia coli by immobilizing a 5'-biotin-labeled E. coli probe (BdE) using a differential pulse voltammetric technique in the presence of methylene blue as a DNA hybridization indicator. Depending on the target sample and the(More)
Double stranded calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was physisorbed onto polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate (PPY-PVS) films electrochemically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plates. These DNA immobilized PPY-PVS films optimized for various conditions, such as polymerization potential, pH of buffer, DNA concentration and scan rate were(More)
Ultrasensitive DNA hybridization biosensor based on polyaniline (PANI) electrochemically deposited onto Pt disc electrode has been fabricated using biotin-avidin as indirect coupling agent to immobilize single-stranded 5'-biotin end-labeled polydeoxycytidine (BdC) probes and 5'-biotin end-labeled 35 base-long oligonucleotide probe (BdE) to detect(More)
Despite 30 years of advocacy, the prevalence of non-therapeutic female genital alteration (FGA) in minors is stable in many countries. Educational efforts have minimally changed the prevalence of this procedure in regions where it has been widely practiced. In order to better protect female children from the serious and long-term harms of some types of(More)
Double stranded calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid entrapped polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate (dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS) films fabricated onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plates have been used to detect organophosphates such as chlorpyrifos and malathion. These disposable dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been characterized using cyclic voltammetry,(More)
Ligands of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily play important roles in embryonic patterning and development throughout the animal kingdom. Consequently, extracellular factors that affect ligand stability, mobility, and receptor interaction also have profound effects on development. One such regulator, Follistatin (Fst), functions as(More)