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Signaling by TGF beta-related factors requires ligand-induced association between type I and type II transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. In Drosophila, the saxophone (sax) and thick veins (tkv) genes encode type I receptors that mediate signaling by decapentaplegic (dpp), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subgroup of TGF beta-type(More)
Decapentaplegic (dpp), a TGF beta-related ligand, plays a key role in Drosophila development. Although dpp receptors have been isolated, the downstream components of the signaling pathway remain to be identified. We have cloned the schnurri (shn) gene and show that it encodes a putative zinc finger transcription factor homologous to the human major(More)
Double stranded calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was physisorbed onto polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate (PPY-PVS) films electrochemically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plates. These DNA immobilized PPY-PVS films optimized for various conditions, such as polymerization potential, pH of buffer, DNA concentration and scan rate were(More)
Graded activity of the DPP signaling pathway is critical for specification of dorsal embryonic cell fates in Drosophila. We present evidence that a second BMP ligand, SCW, potentiates DPP activity. Using dominant-negative forms of the type I receptors SAX and TKV, we demonstrate that SAX mediates the SCW signal, while TKV is required for both DPP and SCW(More)
To understand the actions of morphogens, it is crucial to determine how they elicit different transcriptional responses in different cell types. Here, we identify a BMP-responsive enhancer of Msx2, an immediate early target of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. We show that the BMP-responsive region of Msx2 consists of a core element, required(More)
Axon guidance is regulated by intrinsic factors and extrinsic cues provided by other neurons, glia and target muscles. Dawdle (Daw), a divergent TGF-beta superfamily ligand expressed in glia and mesoderm, is required for embryonic motoneuron pathfinding in Drosophila. In daw mutants, ISNb and SNa axons fail to extend completely and are unable to innervate(More)
Ligands of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily play important roles in embryonic patterning and development throughout the animal kingdom. Consequently, extracellular factors that affect ligand stability, mobility, and receptor interaction also have profound effects on development. One such regulator, Follistatin (Fst), functions as(More)
Double stranded calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid entrapped polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate (dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS) films fabricated onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plates have been used to detect organophosphates such as chlorpyrifos and malathion. These disposable dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been characterized using cyclic voltammetry,(More)
Plasmodium yoelii infection caused significant decline in the hepatic and splenic glutathione content and the activities of the key enzymes, that is, glutamate cysteine ligase (EC 6.3.2.2) and glutathione reductase (EC 1.8.1.7) of their murine host, that is, Swiss albino mice. Methylene blue as well as menadione were found to restore these constituents when(More)
Typhoid is re-emerging as a biggest health threat to third world countries. One of the major challenge is false negative diagnosis using existing immunodiagnostic methods due to overlapping symptoms of other infections (like brucellosis, malaria, hepatitis) that mimic this enteric fever (typhoid). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based DNA hybridisation(More)