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We have analyzed the contributions made by maternal and zygotic genes to the establishment of the expression patterns of four zygotic patterning genes: decapentaplegic (dpp), zerknüllt (zen), twist (twi), and snail (sna). All of these genes are initially expressed either dorsally or ventrally in the segmented region of the embryo, and at the poles. In the(More)
Signaling by TGF beta-related factors requires ligand-induced association between type I and type II transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. In Drosophila, the saxophone (sax) and thick veins (tkv) genes encode type I receptors that mediate signaling by decapentaplegic (dpp), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subgroup of TGF beta-type(More)
Graded activity of the DPP signaling pathway is critical for specification of dorsal embryonic cell fates in Drosophila. We present evidence that a second BMP ligand, SCW, potentiates DPP activity. Using dominant-negative forms of the type I receptors SAX and TKV, we demonstrate that SAX mediates the SCW signal, while TKV is required for both DPP and SCW(More)
Decapentaplegic (dpp), a TGF beta-related ligand, plays a key role in Drosophila development. Although dpp receptors have been isolated, the downstream components of the signaling pathway remain to be identified. We have cloned the schnurri (shn) gene and show that it encodes a putative zinc finger transcription factor homologous to the human major(More)
The spatial and temporal pattern of mitoses during the fourteenth nuclear cycle in a Drosophila embryo reflects differences in cell identities. We have analysed the domains of mitotic division in zygotic mutants that exhibit defects in larval cuticular pattern along the dorsoventral axis. This is a powerful means of fate mapping mutant embryos, as the(More)
Axon guidance is regulated by intrinsic factors and extrinsic cues provided by other neurons, glia and target muscles. Dawdle (Daw), a divergent TGF-beta superfamily ligand expressed in glia and mesoderm, is required for embryonic motoneuron pathfinding in Drosophila. In daw mutants, ISNb and SNa axons fail to extend completely and are unable to innervate(More)
This paper covers the basic aspects of security metrics. It provides a definition of security metrics explains their value, discusses various aspects or issues in developing the security metrics and design considerations for information security measurement systems. More than 100 years ago, Lord Kelvin insightfully observed that measurement is vital to deep(More)
Individuals with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) display diverse developmental deficits, including slow growth, multiple limb and organ abnormalities, and intellectual disabilities. Severely-affected individuals most often have dominant loss-of-function mutations in the Nipped-B-Like (NIPBL) gene, and milder cases often have missense or in-frame deletion(More)
The transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b) superfamily of structurally related ligands regulates essential signaling pathways that control many aspects of cell behavior in organisms across the phylogenetic spectrum. Here we report the identi®cation of maverick (mav), a gene that encodes a new member of the TGF-b superfamily in Drosophila. Phylogenetic(More)
There is emerging evidence to demonstrate the efficacy of music-based interventions for improving social functioning in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). While this evidence lends some support in favor of using song over spoken directives in facilitating engagement and receptive intervention in ASD, there has been little research that has(More)