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Cerebral edema is a major complication of acute liver failure but may also be seen in other forms of liver failure such as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and chronic liver failure (CLF). ACLF develops in patients with previously well-compensated chronic liver disease following acute hepatitis A or E superimposed on underlying liver cirrhosis. The aim(More)
Myo-inositol (mIns) is a marker of glial cells proliferation and has been shown to increase in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. mIns exhibits a concentration dependent chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer (CEST) effect (MICEST) between its hydroxyl groups and bulk water protons. Using the endogenous MICEST technique brain mIns concentration and(More)
Glutamate (Glu) is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and has been shown to decrease in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using a glutamate chemical (amine) exchange saturation transfer (GluCEST) method, we imaged the change in [Glu] in the APP-PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD at high spatial resolution. Compared with wild-type(More)
High fractional anisotropy (FA) usually reflects the orientation and integrity of white matter (WM) fibers. Other regions of increased FA have been described, such as brain abscesses, developing cortex, and areas of hemorrhage. It may not be possible to differentiate true fibers from the pseudofibers found inside an abscess cavity on the basis of FA and(More)
The antitumor agent lonidamine (LND; 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid) is known to interfere with energy-yielding processes in cancer cells. However, the effect of LND on central energy metabolism has never been fully characterized. In this study, we report that a significant amount of succinate is accumulated in LND-treated cells. LND(More)
INTRODUCTION Increased anisotropy in brain abscesses has been shown to be due to adhesion of inflammatory cells and is suggestive of an active inflammatory process. The objective of this study was to determine if similar changes occur in the pia-arachnoid on the surface of the cerebral cortex in patients with pyogenic meningitis, and if these changes(More)
Increased expression of cathepsins has diagnostic as well as prognostic value in several types of cancer. Here, we demonstrate a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, which uses poly-L-glutamate (PLG) as an MRI probe to map cathepsin expression in vivo, in a rat brain tumor model. This noninvasive, high-resolution and non-radioactive method(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate assessment of therapeutic response in patients with brain abscess (BA) is essential to direct appropriate therapy. This study was performed with an aim to see the treatment-induced changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices (i.e., fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD]) in follow-up patients with BA after treatment.(More)
We present the first validated metabolic network model for analysis of flux through key pathways of tumor intermediary metabolism, including glycolysis, the oxidative and non-oxidative arms of the pentose pyrophosphate shunt, the TCA cycle as well as its anaplerotic pathways, pyruvate-malate shuttling, glutaminolysis, and fatty acid biosynthesis and(More)
Non-invasive imaging of lactate is of enormous significance in cancer and metabolic disorders where glycolysis dominates. Here, for the first time, we describe a chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method (LATEST), based on the exchange between lactate hydroxyl proton and bulk water protons to image lactate with(More)