Kaveh Khoshnood

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BACKGROUND Our goal was to describe trends in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS We used time-trend analysis of annual invasive pneumococcal disease incidence rates from a population-based, active surveillance(More)
The United States is in the midst of a prolonged and growing epidemic of accidental and preventable deaths associated with overdoses of licit and illicit opioids. For more than 3 decades, naloxone has been used by emergency medical personnel to pharmacologically reverse overdoses. The peers or family members of overdose victims, however, are most often the(More)
The New Haven needle exchange program experienced a significant decline in the fraction of returned needles containing human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA. Is this decline due to the operations of the needle exchange or to a shift in clients? Analysis of demographic and behavioral data revealed that only one variable, the race of(More)
Little is known about the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in HIV-infected women because, to date, no longitudinal studies have been reported in the scientific literature. This article estimates the incidence of anal cytological abnormalities in a cohort of HIV-infected women. It also examines potential risk factors for the(More)
Hookworm is highly endemic to Hainan Province, an island located in the South China Sea. To investigate the prevalence and intensity of infection in the area, the village of Xiulongkan was surveyed between April and July 1998. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which fecal samples of 80% of the village residents (631 individuals) were tested for the(More)
As populations move to urban centres across East Africa, lifestyle habits that affect cardiovascular disease have changed, affecting non-communicable disease risk. In particular, the prevalence of hypertension, and associated awareness of this life-threatening condition, has not been studied in Mombasa, Kenya. This paper assesses the rates of prevalence,(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to determine the extent of HIV testing among urban injection drug users (IDUs) to assess whether an expansion of targeted testing programs would be consistent with national goals to identify previously undetected infections. METHODS IDUs in 5 US cities (Oakland, Calif; Chicago, Ill; Hartford and New Haven, Conn; and Springfield, Mass)(More)
SETTING St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. OBJECTIVES To identify barriers to the completion of tuberculosis (TB) treatment among prisoners and former prisoners in St Petersburg, Russia. DESIGN Questionnaires were administered to 60 prisoners and 40 former prisoners. Interviews were performed with prison and TB dispensary staff. Treatment follow-up(More)
While significant gains have been achieved in understanding and reducing AIDS and hepatitis risks among injection drug users (IDUs), it is necessary to move beyond individual-level characteristics to gain a fuller understanding of the impact of social context on risk. In this study, 6 qualitative methods were used in combination with more traditional(More)
As part of a larger syringe access and HIV risk study, a subsample of 23 current injection drug users completed daily diaries, highlighting activities related to syringe acquisition, use, and discard. Diaries have been previously utilized in a variety of psychological, public health, and nutrition studies to assess risk as well as correlated behaviors. We(More)