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The United States is in the midst of a prolonged and growing epidemic of accidental and preventable deaths associated with overdoses of licit and illicit opioids. For more than 3 decades, naloxone has been used by emergency medical personnel to pharmacologically reverse overdoses. The peers or family members of overdose victims, however, are most often the(More)
The prevalence of HIV infection in correctional settings is several-fold higher than found in community settings. New approaches to identifying HIV infection among prisoners are urgently needed. In order to determine the HIV seroprevalence and to identify the correlates of HIV infection among female prisoners, an anonymous, but linked HIV serosurvey was(More)
While significant gains have been achieved in understanding and reducing AIDS and hepatitis risks among injection drug users (IDUs), it is necessary to move beyond individual-level characteristics to gain a fuller understanding of the impact of social context on risk. In this study, 6 qualitative methods were used in combination with more traditional(More)
As part of a larger syringe access and HIV risk study, a subsample of 23 current injection drug users completed daily diaries, highlighting activities related to syringe acquisition, use, and discard. Diaries have been previously utilized in a variety of psychological, public health, and nutrition studies to assess risk as well as correlated behaviors. We(More)
As populations move to urban centres across East Africa, lifestyle habits that affect cardiovascular disease have changed, affecting non-communicable disease risk. In particular, the prevalence of hypertension, and associated awareness of this life-threatening condition, has not been studied in Mombasa, Kenya. This paper assesses the rates of prevalence,(More)
BACKGROUND Our goal was to describe trends in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS We used time-trend analysis of annual invasive pneumococcal disease incidence rates from a population-based, active surveillance(More)
Little is known about the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in HIV-infected women because, to date, no longitudinal studies have been reported in the scientific literature. This article estimates the incidence of anal cytological abnormalities in a cohort of HIV-infected women. It also examines potential risk factors for the(More)
BACKGROUND In Iran, there are an estimated 200,000 injecting drug users (IDUs). Injecting drug use is a relatively new phenomenon for this country, where opium smoking was the predominant form of drug use for hundreds of years. As in many countries experiencing a rise in injecting drug use, HIV/AIDS in Iran is associated with the injection of drugs,(More)
CONTEXT In the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War, extensive use of chemical weapons resulted in high rates of morbidity and mortality. While much is known about the physical consequences of chemical warfare, there is a paucity of information about the long-term effects of chemical attacks on mental health. OBJECTIVE To assess the long-term psychological impact of(More)
PURPOSE To report on the deployment of the syringe tracking and testing system in the New Haven needle exchange program, which is the first federally funded evaluation of a needle exchange program conducted in the United States. PATIENTS AND METHODS A legal needle exchange for intravenous drug users began in New Haven, Connecticut, in November 1990. All(More)