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The United States is in the midst of a prolonged and growing epidemic of accidental and preventable deaths associated with overdoses of licit and illicit opioids. For more than 3 decades, naloxone has been used by emergency medical personnel to pharmacologically reverse overdoses. The peers or family members of overdose victims, however, are most often the(More)
The prevalence of HIV infection in correctional settings is several-fold higher than found in community settings. New approaches to identifying HIV infection among prisoners are urgently needed. In order to determine the HIV seroprevalence and to identify the correlates of HIV infection among female prisoners, an anonymous, but linked HIV serosurvey was(More)
As populations move to urban centres across East Africa, lifestyle habits that affect cardiovascular disease have changed, affecting non-communicable disease risk. In particular, the prevalence of hypertension, and associated awareness of this life-threatening condition, has not been studied in Mombasa, Kenya. This paper assesses the rates of prevalence,(More)
BACKGROUND In Iran, there are an estimated 200,000 injecting drug users (IDUs). Injecting drug use is a relatively new phenomenon for this country, where opium smoking was the predominant form of drug use for hundreds of years. As in many countries experiencing a rise in injecting drug use, HIV/AIDS in Iran is associated with the injection of drugs,(More)
Little is known about the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in HIV-infected women because, to date, no longitudinal studies have been reported in the scientific literature. This article estimates the incidence of anal cytological abnormalities in a cohort of HIV-infected women. It also examines potential risk factors for the(More)
BACKGROUND Our goal was to describe trends in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS We used time-trend analysis of annual invasive pneumococcal disease incidence rates from a population-based, active surveillance(More)
While significant gains have been achieved in understanding and reducing AIDS and hepatitis risks among injection drug users (IDUs), it is necessary to move beyond individual-level characteristics to gain a fuller understanding of the impact of social context on risk. In this study, 6 qualitative methods were used in combination with more traditional(More)
PURPOSE To report on the deployment of the syringe tracking and testing system in the New Haven needle exchange program, which is the first federally funded evaluation of a needle exchange program conducted in the United States. PATIENTS AND METHODS A legal needle exchange for intravenous drug users began in New Haven, Connecticut, in November 1990. All(More)
We determined the effect of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) on syringe reuse patterns. Five methods were employed to estimate injections per syringe made by exchange clients in four cities. In San Francisco, Chicago, and Baltimore, self-reported data on the number of injections per syringe were obtained. In New Haven, self-reported injection frequencies(More)
Global and local efforts have been devoted to increase the supply of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent qualitative studies suggest that even with free ART, patients may fail to adhere to medication because of socioeconomic barriers such as transportation costs to clinics. The aim of this study was to measure adherence in a(More)