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The protein kinase encoded by the Akt proto-oncogene is activated by phospholipid binding, membrane translocation and phosphorylation. To address the relative roles of these mechanisms of Akt activation, we have employed a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. Transient transfection of NIH3T3 cells with wild-type Akt, pleckstrin homology(More)
Pancreatic cancer is almost always fatal, in part because of its delayed diagnosis, poor prognosis, rapid progression and chemoresistance. Oncogenic proteins are stabilized by the Hsp90, making it a potential therapeutic target. We investigated the oxidative stress-mediated dysfunction of Hsp90 and the hindrance of its chaperonic activity by a carbazole(More)
PURPOSE Macroautophagy is a catabolic pathway that degrades cellular components through the lysosomal machinery. Cytoplasmic components are sequestered in double-membrane autophagosomes. They fuse with lysosomes where their cargo is delivered for degradation and recycling. Autophagy acts as a survival mechanism under stress by producing energy and as an(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF-A) is expressed constitutively in the adult glomerular podocytes at high levels; however, the regulation of its production is unclear. Recent data from podocyte-specific knockout mice suggest that VPF/VEGF-A is critical for the proper maintenance of glomerular filtration(More)
The acute retrovirus AKT8, isolated from an AKR mouse T-cell lymphoma, transforms mink lung cells in culture and is oncogenic when inoculated into newborn mice. The oncogene carried by this virus, v-akt, arose by recombination between Gag and the 5' untranslated region of the cellular gene c-akt. v-akt encodes a 105 kilodalton (kd) Gag-Akt fusion protein(More)
Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) functions by activating two receptor-tyrosine kinases, Flt-1 (VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1) and KDR (VEGFR-2), both of which are selectively expressed on primary vascular endothelium. KDR is responsible for VPF/VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation and migration, whereas Flt-1(More)
The Akt protooncogene encodes a serine-threonine protein kinase which is activated by growth factor-generated signals that are transduced via the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-K). Earlier studies suggested that the activation of Akt by PI3-K may be mediated by the binding of D3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides to the Akt pleckstrin homology (PH)(More)
The cytoplasmic serine-threonine protein kinase coded for by the c-akt proto-oncogene features a protein kinase C-like catalytic domain and a unique NH2-terminal domain (AH domain). The AH domain is a member of a domain superfamily whose prototype was observed in pleckstrin (pleckstrin homology, or PH, domain). In this communication, we present evidence(More)
Recurrence and subsequent metastatic transformation of cancer develops from a subset of malignant cells, which show the ability to resist stress and to adopt to a changing microenvironment. These tumor cells have distinctly different growth factor pathways and antiapoptotic responses compared with the vast majority of cancer cells. Long-term therapeutic(More)
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated signaling is thought to be involved in the regulation of multiple cellular functions in different tumors including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Blocking IGF-I signaling by any of the several strategies abolishes or delays the progression of a variety of tumors in animal models. Herein, we demonstrate that in RCC(More)