Kaushik Parthasarathi

Learn More
Acute lung injury (ALI), which is associated with a mortality of 30-40%, is attributable to inflammation that develops rapidly across the lung's vast vascular surface, involving an entire lung or even both lungs. No specific mechanism explains this extensive inflammatory spread, probably because of the lack of approaches for detecting signal conduction in(More)
The liquid layer lining the pulmonary alveolar wall critically determines the lung's immune defense against inhaled pathogens, because it provides a liquid milieu in the air-filled alveolus for dispersal of immune cells and defensive surfactant proteins. However, mechanisms underlying formation of the liquid are unknown. We achieved visualization of the(More)
Although clusters of alveoli form the acinus, which is the most distal respiratory unit, it is not known whether interalveolar communication coordinates acinar surfactant secretion. To address this, we applied real-time digital imaging in conjunction with photo-excited Ca2+ uncaging in intact alveoli of the isolated, blood-perfused rat lung. We loaded(More)
A number of Lys-Pro-containing short peptides have been described as possessing a variety of biological activities in vitro. Because of limited metabolic stability, however, their efficacy in vivo is uncertain. To exploit the pharmacological potential of Lys-Pro-containing short peptides, we synthesized a series of chemically modified forms of these(More)
Endothelial cell barrier (EC) properties regulate blood tissue fluid flux. To determine the role of endothelial-matrix interactions in barrier regulation, we induced cell shrinkage by exposing confluent endothelial monolayers to hyperosmolarity. The dominant effect of a 15-min hyperosmolar exposure was an increase in the trans-endothelial electrical(More)
Both high tidal volume mechanical ventilation (HV) and hyperoxia (HO) have been implicated in ventilator-induced lung injury. However, patients with acute lung injury are often exposed to HO before the application of mechanical ventilation. The potential priming of the lungs for subsequent injury by exposure to HO has not been extensively studied. We(More)
Diarrhea is one of the most common adverse side effects observed in ∼7% of individuals consuming Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. The mechanism of how these drugs alter fluid secretion in the gut and induce diarrhea is not clearly understood. Several drugs are either substrates or inhibitors of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), such(More)
Endotoxemia, a major feature of sepsis, is a common cause of acute lung injury and initiates rapid accumulation of leukocytes in the lung vasculature. Endothelial mechanisms that underlie this accumulation remain unclear, as current experimental models of endotoxemia are less suitable for targeted activation of the endothelium. Toward elucidating this, we(More)
Both hyperoxia and mechanical ventilation can independently cause lung injury. In combination, these insults produce accelerated and severe lung injury. We recently reported that pre-exposure to hyperoxia for 12 hours, followed by ventilation with large tidal volumes, induced significant lung injury and epithelial cell apoptosis compared with either(More)
Pulmonary function is dependent upon the precise regulation of alveolar surfactant. Alterations in pulmonary surfactant concentrations or function impair ventilation and cause tissue injury. Identification of the molecular pathways that sense and regulate endogenous alveolar surfactant concentrations, coupled with the ability to pharmacologically modulate(More)