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Both nitric oxide (NO) and GABA are known to provide inhibitory inputs to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and are involved in the control of sympathetic outflow. The purpose of the present study was to examine the interaction of NO and GABA in the regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats. The responses of renal nerve(More)
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is a central site known to modulate sympathetic outflow. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters within the PVN dictate final outflow. The goal of the present study was to examine the role of the interaction between the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic exercise (EX) improves the quality of life and increases the survival of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Because sympathetic nerve activity is elevated in the CHF state, it is possible that EX is beneficial in this disease due to a decrease in sympathetic outflow. METHODS AND RESULTS We evaluated arterial baroreflex function(More)
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is an important site of integration in the central nervous system for sympathetic outflow. Both glutamate and nitric oxide (NO) play an important role in the regulation of sympathetic nerve activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the interaction of NO and glutamate within the PVN in the(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated whether Angiotensin II (Ang II) modulates peripheral chemoreflex function through carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors in chronic heart failure (CHF). METHODS We measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in response to graded hypoxia before and after intravenous administration of Ang II (20 ng/kg/min, i.v. 30 min) or AT1(More)
Neuronal activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as well as sympathetic outflow from the PVN, is basally restrained by a GABAergic inhibitory tone. We recently showed that two complementary GABA(A) receptor-mediated modalities underlie inhibition of PVN neuronal activity: a synaptic, quantal inhibitory modality (IPSCs, I(phasic)) and a(More)
Although communication between neurons is considered a function of the synapse, neurons also release neurotransmitter from their dendrites. We found that dendritic transmitter release coordinates activity across distinct neuronal populations to generate integrative homeostatic responses. We show that activity-dependent vasopressin release from hypothalamic(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine if the renal sympathetic nerve discharge (RSND), mediated by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), is altered in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Two to three weeks prior to the start of the experiment the diabetic group was treated with a single injection of STZ (65 mg/kg ip) in a 2%(More)
Autospectral and coherence analyses were used to determine the effect of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) GABA(A) receptor antagonism [microinfusion or microinjections of bicuculline methiodide (BMI) 100 pmoles] on sympathetic nerve discharge (SND) frequency components (bursting pattern and relationships between discharges in regionally selective nerves) in(More)
Our goal was to determine whether exercise training (ExT) alleviates impaired nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent dilation of pial arterioles during chronic exposure to nicotine. We measured dilation of cerebral (pial) arterioles in sedentary and exercised control and nicotine-treated (2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 4 wk via an osmotic minipump) rats to an(More)