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The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is a central site known to modulate sympathetic outflow. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters within the PVN dictate final outflow. The goal of the present study was to examine the role of the interaction between the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in(More)
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is an important site of integration in the central nervous system for sympathetic outflow. Both glutamate and nitric oxide (NO) play an important role in the regulation of sympathetic nerve activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the interaction of NO and glutamate within the PVN in the(More)
Neuronal activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as well as sympathetic outflow from the PVN, is basally restrained by a GABAergic inhibitory tone. We recently showed that two complementary GABA(A) receptor-mediated modalities underlie inhibition of PVN neuronal activity: a synaptic, quantal inhibitory modality (IPSCs, I(phasic)) and a(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated whether Angiotensin II (Ang II) modulates peripheral chemoreflex function through carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors in chronic heart failure (CHF). METHODS We measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in response to graded hypoxia before and after intravenous administration of Ang II (20 ng/kg/min, i.v. 30 min) or AT1(More)
Although communication between neurons is considered a function of the synapse, neurons also release neurotransmitter from their dendrites. We found that dendritic transmitter release coordinates activity across distinct neuronal populations to generate integrative homeostatic responses. We show that activity-dependent vasopressin release from hypothalamic(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine if the renal sympathetic nerve discharge (RSND), mediated by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), is altered in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Two to three weeks prior to the start of the experiment the diabetic group was treated with a single injection of STZ (65 mg/kg ip) in a 2%(More)
Autospectral and coherence analyses were used to determine the effect of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) GABA(A) receptor antagonism [microinfusion or microinjections of bicuculline methiodide (BMI) 100 pmoles] on sympathetic nerve discharge (SND) frequency components (bursting pattern and relationships between discharges in regionally selective nerves) in(More)
1. A number of neurohumoral processes are activated in heart failure (HF), including an increase in the plasma concentration of noradrenaline. 2. Few studies have been performed to examine the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in the activation of sympathetic outflow during HF. In the present paper we review the limited studies performed to examine(More)
One characteristic of heart failure (HF) is increased sympathetic activation. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus (involved in control of sympathetic outflow) has been shown to have increased neuronal activation during HF. This study examined the influence of endogenous GABA input (inhibitory in nature) into the PVN on renal sympathetic(More)
The parvocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus are known to be involved in the control of central autonomic outflow. While the PVN is also known to be involved in the control of fluid-balance, most of the studies examining this nucleus have emphasized the magnocellular neurons, which are involved in the humoral control of(More)