Kauko K Mäkinen

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Dental caries is a pandemic infectious disease which can affect the quality of life and consumes considerable health care resources. The chewing of xylitol, sorbitol, and even sugar gum has been suggested to reduce caries rates. No clinical study has simultaneously investigated the effectiveness of these gums when compared with a group receiving no chewing(More)
A longitudinal study was carried out in order to evaluate the caries incidence as affected by partial substitution of dietary sucrose (S) with xylitol (X), the effects of S- or X-containing chewing gums being compared during one year. The material comprised initially 102 young adults, predominantly dental and medical students, divided randomly into S- and(More)
The effect of 2-year chewing-gum use on the caries rates of primary teeth was studied in a combined school and home program in a sample of 510 initially 6-year-old subjects with high caries experience, low availability of fluoride, and difficult access to dental care. The gum, formed into either sticks or pellets, comprised either xylitol, sorbitol, or(More)
Plaque and whole saliva samples were collected from initially 11- to 12-year-old children randomly chosen from two groups which participated in a 2- to 3-year field trial designed to test the efficacy of xylitol chewing gums in caries prevention. No initial differences were observed between the groups with regard to the plaque levels of Streptococcus(More)
Several sugar alcohols (polyols) have been promoted as potential sugar substitutes in caries limitation. However, differences in the effects of simple alditol-type sugar alcohol homologues on dental plaque have not been compared in clinical tests. The effects of 6-month use of erythritol (a sugar alcohol of the tetritol type), xylitol (a pentitol) and(More)
Caries has traditionally been assessed with WHO criteria including only obvious caries lesions. ICDAS has been developed to detect also the enamel caries lesions. This study aims to study caries and the associations of the number of caries lesions between the permanent and primary molars with ICDAS in the mixed dentition of the first and second grade(More)
INTRODUCTION Dental caries is a diet-associated disease which continues to be a serious health problem in most industrialized and developing countries. Strategies to maximize caries prevention should automatically consider the use of sugar substitutes. It is important that public health authorities are made cognizant of the availability of new polyol-type(More)
The effect of sorbitol (SOR), xylitol (XYL), and the mixture XYL/SOR in chewing gums on dental plaque was studied in three groups of 7 adults (mean age 22.5 years). A fourth group of habitual users of sucrose-containing gums was used as a control. The study involved a 2-week, no-gum period followed by the use of the polyol gums for 2 weeks (10 gums/day in 5(More)
The purpose was to study differences in the caries increment rate as influenced by various sugars. The trial involved almost complete substitution of sucrose (S) by fructose (F) or xylitol (X) during a period of 2 years. There were no significant initial differences as to caries status between the prospective sugar groups; 35 subjects in the S-group, 38 in(More)
The purpose of this paper is to report clinical observations on the stabilisation of dentine caries in two chewing gum studies carried out in young subjects. One study focused on the permanent dentition of 1,277 initially 10-year old subjects, while the other study was carried out on 510 initially 6-year old subjects and focused on the primary dentition. In(More)