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Inhibitory control and error detection are among the highest evolved human self-monitoring functions. Attempts in functional neuroimaging to effectively isolate inhibitory motor control from other cognitive functions have met with limited success. Different brain regions in inferior, mesial, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and parietal and temporal(More)
BACKGROUND Some clinical characteristics of high-functioning individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) such as repetitive stereotyped behaviors, perseveration, and obsessionality have been related to executive function (EF) deficits, more specifically to deficits in inhibitory control and set shifting and mediating frontostriatal neural pathways.(More)
We argue that impulsiveness is characterized by compromised timing functions such as premature motor timing, decreased tolerance to delays, poor temporal foresight and steeper temporal discounting. A model illustration for the association between impulsiveness and timing deficits is the impulsiveness disorder of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder(More)
Temporal discounting (TD) matures with age, alongside other markers of increased impulse control, and coherent, self-regulated behaviour. Discounting paradigms quantify the ability to refrain from preference of immediate rewards, in favour of delayed, larger rewards. As such, they measure temporal foresight and the ability to delay gratification, functions(More)
OBJECTIVE Structural neuroimaging studies in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been relatively inconsistent and have mainly been conducted with pediatric samples. Furthermore, there is evidence that stimulant medication may have an effect on brain structure. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies in(More)
BACKGROUND Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have deficits in performance monitoring often improved with the indirect catecholamine agonist methylphenidate (MPH). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effects of single-dose MPH on activation of error processing brain areas in medication-naive boys with(More)
People with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have abnormalities in cognitive and motor inhibition, and it has been proposed that these are related to dysfunction of fronto-striatal circuits. However, nobody has investigated neuro-functional abnormalities during a range of inhibition tasks in adults with OCD. The aims of the study were to compare brain(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormalities in inhibitory control and underlying fronto-striatal networks is common to both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive-disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to investigate disorder-specific abnormalities in neural networks mediating interference inhibition and selective attention. METHOD(More)
OBJECTIVE Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a medication history have shown abnormal brain activation in prefrontal and striatal brain regions during cognitive challenge. Previous findings have been confounded, however, by potential long-term effects of stimulant medication exposure and group discrepancies in task(More)
BACKGROUND Atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) licensed for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has been shown to improve response inhibition in animals, healthy volunteers, and adult patients. However, the mechanisms by which atomoxetine improves inhibitory control have yet to be determined. (More)