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Conjunction analysis methods were used in functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain regions commonly activated in subjects performing different versions of go/no-go and stop tasks, differing in probability of inhibitory signals and/or contrast conditions. Generic brain activation maps highlighted brain regions commonly activated in (a) two(More)
BACKGROUND Some clinical characteristics of high-functioning individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) such as repetitive stereotyped behaviors, perseveration, and obsessionality have been related to executive function (EF) deficits, more specifically to deficits in inhibitory control and set shifting and mediating frontostriatal neural pathways.(More)
Inhibitory control and error detection are among the highest evolved human self-monitoring functions. Attempts in functional neuroimaging to effectively isolate inhibitory motor control from other cognitive functions have met with limited success. Different brain regions in inferior, mesial, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and parietal and temporal(More)
BACKGROUND Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have deficits in motivation and attention that can be ameliorated with the indirect dopamine agonist Methylphenidate (MPH). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the effects of MPH in medication-naïve children with ADHD on the activation and functional(More)
OBJECTIVE Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to investigate the hypothesis that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a dysfunction of prefrontal brain regions during motor response inhibition and motor timing. METHOD Generic brain activation of seven adolescent boys with ADHD was compared to that of nine(More)
OBJECTIVE Structural neuroimaging studies in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been relatively inconsistent and have mainly been conducted with pediatric samples. Furthermore, there is evidence that stimulant medication may have an effect on brain structure. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies in(More)
Higher cognitive inhibitory and attention functions have been shown to develop throughout adolescence, presumably concurrent with anatomical brain maturational changes. The relatively scarce developmental functional imaging literature on cognitive control, however, has been inconsistent with respect to the neurofunctional substrates of this cognitive(More)
OBJECTIVE Among children, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder are often comorbid and overlap clinically. Neuropsychological evidence suggests that children with conduct disorder demonstrate more prominent motivational problems and children with ADHD demonstrate more prominent attention deficits relative to healthy comparison(More)
OBJECTIVE Inhibitory dysfunction may be a transdiagnostic etiopathophysiology of disruptive behavior disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of inhibitory control has only been investigated in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including comorbidity with conduct disorder, showing frontal-striatal dysfunction. This(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate whether previously observed hypofrontality in adolescents with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during executive functioning [Rubia K, Overmeyer S, Taylor E, Brammer M, Williams S, Simmons A, Andrew C, Bullmore ET. Hypofrontality in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during higher order motor(More)