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The COPII complex mediates the selective incorporation of secretory cargo and relevant machinery into budding vesicles at specialised sites on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane called transitional ER (tER). Here, we show using confocal microscopy, immunogold labelling of ultrathin cryosections and electron tomography that in human cells at steady state,(More)
Bone remodeling is an important physiologic process that is required to maintain a constant bone mass. This is achieved through a balanced activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. In this study, we identify the high mobility group transcription factor Sox8 as a physiologic regulator of bone formation. Sox8-deficient mice display(More)
Chick embryos are useful models for probing developmental mechanisms including those involved in organogenesis. In addition to classic embryological manipulations, it is possible to test the function of molecules and genes while the embryo remains within the egg. Here we define conditions for imaging chick embryo anatomy and for visualising living quail(More)
Phosphoinositides are spatially restricted membrane signaling molecules. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]--a phosphoinositide that is highly enriched in, and present throughout, the plasma membrane--has been implicated in endocytosis. Trypanosoma brucei has one of the highest known rates of endocytosis, a process it uses to evade the immune(More)
The structure of a new pancreatic lipase inhibitor, lipstatin, produced by Streptomyces toxytricini was determined as (2S,3S,5S,7Z,10Z)-5-[(S)-2-formamido-4-methylpentanoyloxy ]-2-hexyl-3- hydroxy-7,10-hexadecadienoic lactone by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Structurally lipstatin is closely related to the known esterase inhibitor esterastin. It(More)
Epithelial morphogenesis is directed by interactions with the underlying extracellular matrix. Secretion of collagen and other matrix components requires efficient coat complex II (COPII) vesicle formation at the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that suppression of the outer layer COPII component, Sec13, in zebrafish embryos results in a disorganized(More)
Gross similarities between the external appearance of the hind limbs of the peroneal muscle atrophy (pma) mouse mutant and congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), a human disorder historically referred to as 'clubfoot', suggested that this mutant could be a useful model. We used micro-magnetic resonance imaging to visualize the detailed anatomy of the hind(More)
ER-to-Golgi transport of proteins destined for the extracellular space or intracellular compartments depends on the COPII vesicle coat and is constitutive in all translationally active cells. Nevertheless, there is emerging evidence that this process is regulated on a cell- and tissue-specific basis, which means that components of the COPII coat will be of(More)