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IFN regulatory factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors that play an essential role in the homeostasis and function of immune systems. Recent studies indicated that IRF-8 is critical for the development of CD11b(low)CD8alpha(+) conventional dendritic cells (DCs) and plasmacytoid DCs. Here we show that IRF-4 is important for(More)
Polarization of macrophages to M1 or M2 cells is important for mounting responses against bacterial and helminth infections, respectively. Jumonji domain containing-3 (Jmjd3), a histone 3 Lys27 (H3K27) demethylase, has been implicated in the activation of macrophages. Here we show that Jmjd3 is essential for M2 macrophage polarization in response to(More)
The recognition of microbial components by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is an event central to the activation of innate and adaptive immune systems. TLR activation triggers the induction of downstream target genes, wherein the TLR-interacting adaptor molecule MyD88 recruits various signaling molecules and transcription factors. Two members of the IFN(More)
Dengue virus (DENV) causes fever and severe haemorrhagic symptoms in humans. The DEN2 16681 strain, derived from a dengue haemorrhagic fever patient, has been widely used in studies related to DENV pathogenesis, such as mouse and non-human primate haemorrhagic models and human vascular endothelial-cell permeability. To clarify the entry mechanism of the(More)
IL-10 is a multifunctional cytokine that plays a critical role in maintaining the balance between immunity and tolerance. Previously, we identified proximal regulatory elements and alterations of chromatin structure in the IL-10 gene loci of Th1 and Th2 cells. We have now characterized a crucial cis-regulatory element, CNS-9, located 9kb upstream of the(More)
IL-9 is a pleiotropic cytokine that can regulate autoimmune and allergic responses. Th9 cells can develop from naive T cells or Th2 cells through stimulation by TGF-β in vitro. In this study, we demonstrated that Smad2 and Smad3 are necessary for IL-9 production from T cells in an OVA-induced asthma model using T cell-specific Smad2- and Smad3-deficient(More)
Two members of the proteasome activator, PA28alpha and PA28beta, form a heteropolymer that binds to both ends of the 20S proteasome. Evidence in vitro indicates that this interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-inducible heteropolymer is involved in the processing of intracellular antigens, but its functions in vivo remain elusive. To investigate the role of(More)
IRF4 is a transcription factor from the IRF factor family that plays pivotal roles in the differentiation and function of T and B lymphocytes. Although IRF4 is also expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, its roles in these cells in vivo are not clearly understood. In this study, conditional knockout mice that lack IRF4 in DCs or macrophages(More)
A member of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcription factors, IRF-4 is expressed in lymphocytes and macrophage/dendritic cells. Studies using IRF-4-deficient mice have revealed the critical roles of IRF-4 in lymphocyte responses. However, the role of IRF-4 in innate immune responses is not clearly understood. Here, we demonstrate that IRF-4(More)
A promising strategy for the development of a malaria vaccine involves the use of attenuated whole parasites, as these present a greater repertoire of antigens to the immune system than subunit vaccines. The complexity of the malaria parasite's life cycle offers multiple stages on which to base an attenuated whole organism vaccine. An important(More)