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IRF4 is a transcription factor from the IRF factor family that plays pivotal roles in the differentiation and function of T and B lymphocytes. Although IRF4 is also expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, its roles in these cells in vivo are not clearly understood. In this study, conditional knockout mice that lack IRF4 in DCs or macrophages(More)
Conditions required for establishing protective immune memory vary depending on the infecting microbe. Although the memory immune response against malaria infection is generally thought to be relatively slow to develop and can be lost rapidly, experimental evidence is insufficient. In this report, we investigated the generation, maintenance, and recall(More)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I ligands are mainly produced by the proteasome. Herein, we show that the processing of antigens is regulated by two distinct pathways, one requiring PA28 and the other hsp90. Both hsp90 and PA28 enhanced the antigen processing of ovalbumin (OVA). Geldanamycin, an inhibitor of hsp90, almost completely suppressed(More)
Cerebral malaria is one of the severe complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Studies using a rodent model of Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection established that CD8(+) T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. However, it is unclear whether and how Plasmodium-specific CD8(+) T cells can be activated during the erythrocyte stage(More)
Ionic signaling pathways, including voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels, are instrumental in antigen-mediated responses of peripheral T cells. However, how Kv channels cooperate with other signaling pathways involved in T cell activation and differentiation is unknown. We report that multiple Kv channels are expressed by naive CD4(+) lymphocytes, and(More)
Platelets are most recognized for their vital role as the cellular mediator of thrombosis, but platelets also have important immune functions. Platelets initiate and sustain vascular inflammation in many disease conditions, including arthritis, atherosclerosis, transplant rejection, and severe malaria. We now demonstrate that platelets express T cell(More)
CD8(+) T cells play a crucial role in the control of infection with intracellular microbes. The mechanisms underlying the CD8(+) T-cell-mediated clearance of the intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii are, however, not completely understood. The effect of CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated lysis of host cells on the viability of intracellular T.(More)
We hypothesized that daily intake of nondigestible saccharides delays senescence onset through the improvement of intestinal microflora. Here, we raised senescence accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) on the AIN93 diet (CONT), with sucrose being substituted for 5% of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) or 5% of glucomannan (GM), 15 mice per group. Ten SAMR1 were raised(More)
T-cell immune responses are critical for protection of the host and for disease pathogenesis during infection with Plasmodium species. We examined the regulation of CD4(+) T-cell cytokine responses during infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA). CD4(+) T cells from PbA-infected mice produced IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in response to TCR stimulation at(More)
Multiple immunizations using live irradiated sporozoites, the infectious plasmodial stage delivered into the host skin during a mosquito bite, can elicit sterile immunity to malaria. CD8(+) T cells seem to play an essential role in this protective immunity, since their depletion consistently abolishes sterilizing protection in several experimental models.(More)