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Most of our long-term memories of episodes or objects are organized so that we can retrieve them by association. Clinical neuropsychologists assess human memory by the paired-associate learning test, in which a series of paired words or figures is presented and the subject is then asked to retrieve the other pair member associated with each cue. Patients(More)
When task instructions are given, the human brain establishes a task set before the task is actually performed. By introducing a delay between the instruction and the task, we have identified the neural correlates of task sets using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects were instructed to remember a sequence of positions or letters, either(More)
Recent studies have shown that frontoparietal cortices and interconnecting regions in the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are related to motor skill learning. We propose that motor skill learning occurs independently and in different coordinates in two sets of loop circuits: cortex-basal ganglia and cortex-cerebellum. This architecture accounts for the(More)
To study the role of medial frontal cortex in learning and memory of sequential procedures, we examined neuronal activity of the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and supplementary motor area (SMA) while monkeys (n = 2) performed a sequential button press task, "2 x 5 task." In this paradigm, 2 of 16 (4 x 4 matrix) light-emitting diode buttons (called(More)
To understand the contribution of the human presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in sequential motor behavior, we performed a series of finger key-press experiments. Experiment 1 revealed that each subject had a spontaneous tendency to organize or "chunk" a long sequence into shorter components. We hypothesized that the pre-SMA might have a special role in(More)
Rhythm is determined solely by the relationship between the time intervals of a series of events. Psychological studies have proposed two types of rhythm representation depending on the interval ratio of the rhythm: metrical and nonmetrical representation for rhythms formed with small integer ratios and noninteger ratios, respectively. We used functional(More)
Motor sequence learning is a process whereby a series of elementary movements is re-coded into an efficient representation for the entire sequence. Here we show that human subjects learn a visuomotor sequence by spontaneously chunking the elementary movements, while each chunk acts as a single memory unit. The subjects learned to press a sequence of 10 sets(More)
Recent studies have shown that multiple brain areas contribute to different stages and aspects of procedural learning. On the basis of a series of studies using a sequence-learning task with trial-and-error, we propose a hypothetical scheme in which a sequential procedure is acquired independently by two cortical systems, one using spatial coordinates and(More)
How does the brain maintain information in working memory while challenged by incoming distractions? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured human brain activity during the memory delay of a spatial working memory task with distraction. We found that, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the magnitude of activity sustained throughout the(More)
1. In paired-pulse cortical stimulation experiments, conditioning subthreshold stimuli suppress the electromyographic (EMG) responses of relaxed muscles to suprathreshold magnetic test stimuli at short interstimulus intervals (ISIs) (1-5 ms) and facilitate them at long ISIs (8-15 ms). 2. We made paired-pulse magnetic stimulation studies on the response of(More)