Learn More
When task instructions are given, the human brain establishes a task set before the task is actually performed. By introducing a delay between the instruction and the task, we have identified the neural correlates of task sets using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects were instructed to remember a sequence of positions or letters, either(More)
When humans are engaged in goal-related processing, activity in prefrontal cortex is increased. However, it has remained unclear whether this prefrontal activity encodes a subject's current intention. Instead, increased levels of activity could reflect preparation of motor responses, holding in mind a set of potential choices, tracking the memory of(More)
Prefrontal neurons have been shown to represent task rules. Here we show the mechanisms by which the rule-selective activity in the prefrontal cortex influences subsequent cognitive performance based on that rule. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the frontopolar cortex interacted with posterior areas differently depending on(More)
Recent studies have shown that frontoparietal cortices and interconnecting regions in the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are related to motor skill learning. We propose that motor skill learning occurs independently and in different coordinates in two sets of loop circuits: cortex-basal ganglia and cortex-cerebellum. This architecture accounts for the(More)
Motor sequence learning is a process whereby a series of elementary movements is re-coded into an efficient representation for the entire sequence. Here we show that human subjects learn a visuomotor sequence by spontaneously chunking the elementary movements, while each chunk acts as a single memory unit. The subjects learned to press a sequence of 10 sets(More)
Sustained activity has been recorded in the prefrontal cortex during working memory tasks. First, we compare the anatomical distribution of this activity in humans and monkeys. Then, we show that it reflects many factors, maintenance of the items presented, preparation for the response, transformation of the items during the delay, task rules and task(More)
Motor sequence learning involves learning of a sequence of effectors with which to execute a series of movements and learning of a sequence of timings at which to execute the movements. In this study, we have segregated the neural correlates of the two learning mechanisms. Moreover, we have found an interaction between the two learning mechanisms in the(More)
Our voluntary behaviors are thought to be controlled by top-down signals from the prefrontal cortex that modulate neural processing in the posterior cortices according to the behavioral goal. However, we have insufficient evidence for the causal effect of the top-down signals. We applied a single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the human(More)
There is evidence from neuroimaging that the prefrontal cortex may be involved in establishing task set activity in advance of presentation of the task itself. To find out whether it plays an essential role, we examined patients with unilateral lesions of the rostral prefrontal cortex. They were first instructed as to whether to perform a spatial or a(More)
Verbal information is maintained on-line within working memory by rehearsal. However, we still can recall the verbal information when rehearsal is interrupted. Here we show that this is achieved by reactivation of maintained information. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify brain activation at encoding, during memory(More)