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The onset of hyperammonemia due to the flow of ammonia-rich portal vein blood through a portal-systemic shunt causes a type of encephalopathy known as chronic portal-systemic shunt encephalopathy (CPSE). We herein report two cases of CPSE that presented with opposite changes in the blood ammonia concentrations during hemodialysis. It is curious that the(More)
AIMS Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) play a role in local anti-tumour immunity. Tumour cells may escape from immune surveillance by expressing RCAS1, a receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells, which inhibits T cell growth. In this study, the correlation between the density of CD8+ TILs, tumour cell apoptosis, and tumour RCAS1(More)
Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) is phosphorylated in its amino terminus based on salt intake under the regulation of the WNK-OSR1/SPAK kinase cascade. We have observed that total protein abundance of NCC and its apical membrane expression varies in the kidney based on the phosphorylation status. To clarify the mechanism, we examined NCC ubiquitination status in(More)
Mutations in WNK1 and WNK4 kinase genes have been shown to cause a human hereditary hypertensive disease, pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII). We previously discovered that WNK kinases phosphorylate and activate OSR1/SPAK kinases that regulate renal SLC12A family transporters such as NKCC2 and NCC, and clarified that the constitutive activation of this(More)
Na-K-Cl cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1) is involved in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell contraction. Recently, the with-no-lysine kinase (WNK)-STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)-NKCC1 phosphorylation cascade in vascular smooth muscle cells was found to be important in the regulation of vascular tone. In this study, we(More)
The relationship between protein–energy wasting and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression is unknown. In the present prospective cohort study, we evaluated the hypothesis that a combination of low body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin level is associated with rapid CKD progression. The study cohort comprised 728 predialysis Japanese patients with CKD(More)
Electrolyte abnormalities, particularly dysnatremia, are independent predictors of adverse outcome in individuals with and without renal failure. However, the association of serum chloride level (Cl−) with mortality or risk of cardiovascular (CV) events in chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. This prospective cohort study included 923 pre-dialysis(More)
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