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The yeast high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway can be activated by either of the two upstream pathways, termed the SHO1 and SLN1 branches. When stimulated by high osmolarity, the SHO1 branch activates an MAP kinase module composed of the Ste11 MAPKKK, the Pbs2 MAPKK, and the Hog1 MAPK. To investigate how osmostress activates this MAPK module, we(More)
To cope with life-threatening high osmolarity, yeast activates the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway, whose core element is the Hog1 MAP kinase cascade. Activated Hog1 regulates the cell cycle, protein translation, and gene expression. Upstream of the HOG pathway are functionally redundant SLN1 and SHO1 signaling branches. However, neither(More)
The yeast filamentous growth (FG) MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway is activated under poor nutritional conditions. We found that the FG-specific Kss1 MAPK is activated by a combination of an O-glycosylation defect caused by disruption of the gene encoding the protein O-mannosyltransferase Pmt4, and an N-glycosylation defect induced by tunicamycin. The(More)
Membrane localization of the Ste11 MAPKKK is essential for activation of both the filamentous growth/invasive growth (FG/IG) MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway and the SHO1 branch of the osmoregulatory HOG MAPK pathway, and is mediated by binding of the Ste50 scaffold protein to the Opy2 membrane anchor. We found that Opy2 has two major (CR-A and CR-B), and one(More)
To cope with environmental high osmolarity, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1, which controls an array of osmoadaptive responses. Two independent, but functionally redundant, osmosensing systems involving the transmembrane sensor histidine kinase Sln1 or the tetraspanning membrane protein(More)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Och1p is required for the initiation of the mannose outer chain elongation of cell wall mannoproteins. A trs130 ts1 mutant that showed an elevated expression of the OCH1-reporters was isolated in our laboratory. In this study, we attempted to gain an understanding of the relationship between the defect in the Trs130p function(More)
Using a "crude" chromatin-based transcription system that mimics transactivation by RAR/RXR heterodimers in vivo, we could not demonstrate that chromatin remodeling was required to relieve nucleosomal repression. Using "purified" chromatin templates, we show here that, irrespective of the presence of histone H1, both ATP-driven chromatin remodeling(More)
For the formation of recombinants involving closely linked markers, two distinct processes play a role. The recombinational interaction between homologous DNA molecules results in the presence of heteroduplex DNA joining the parental components of the recombinant. The presence of markers distinguishing the parents in the region of heteroduplex DNA can(More)
The yeast high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway activates the Hog1 MAP kinase, which coordinates adaptation to high osmolarity conditions. Here we demonstrate that the four-transmembrane (TM) domain protein Sho1 is an osmosensor in the HKR1 sub-branch of the HOG pathway. Crosslinking studies indicate that Sho1 forms planar oligomers of the(More)