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The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is critically involved in the micturition reflex, but little is known about the neuronal mechanisms involved. The present study elucidated dynamic changes in dopamine (DA), glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the rat PAG during the micturition reflex, with a focus on dopaminergic modulation using in vivo(More)
PURPOSE Overactive bladder is highly prevalent among patients with Parkinson disease. Adenosine is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system but it is not fully clarified how adenosine receptors regulate the micturition reflex. Thus, we examined the effect of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist on the micturition reflex in a rat model of(More)
AIMS Adenosine is a neurotransmitter that exerts numerous physiological effects in many organs. However, few studies have focused on the role of adenosine receptors in the control of micturition. Therefore, we examined the role of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the control of bladder activity in rats with normal or acetic acid (AA) irritated bladders. (More)
Sexually dimorphic brain development and behavior are known to be influenced by sex hormones exposure in prenatal periods. On the other hand, second-to forth digit ratio (2D/4D) has been used as an indirect method to investigate the putative effects of prenatal exposure to androgen. In the present study, we herein investigated the relationship between(More)
PURPOSE Patients with Parkinson's disease often have urine storage symptoms, such as urinary urgency, frequency and incontinence, which are induced by detrusor overactivity. However, little is known of the mechanisms inducing detrusor overactivity in this disease. We have previously examined the human brain response to bladder filling in healthy male(More)
BACKGROUND Memory T cells are well known to have a critical role for host defense in humans. However, their role in actual human cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we tried to reveal the clinical importance of tumour-infiltrating CD45RO+ memory T cells in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS We analysed 105 patients with RCC, who received(More)
BACKGROUND Molecules that are highly expressed in tumour endothelial cells (TECs) may be candidates for specifically targeting TECs. Using DNA microarray analysis, we found that the lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene was upregulated in TECs compared with its expression in normal endothelial cells (NECs). LOX is an enzyme that enhances invasion and metastasis of(More)
Prenatal di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure can produce reproductive toxicity in animal models. Only limited data exist from human studies on maternal DEHP exposure and its effects on infants. We aimed to examine the associations between DEHP exposure in utero and reproductive hormone levels in cord blood. Between 2002 and 2005, 514 pregnant women(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of life (QOL) in patients with localized prostate cancer (PC) after intensity-modulated radiation therapy assisted with a fluoroscopic real-time intensity-modulated radiation therapy (RT-IMRT) tumor-tracking system versus the QOL after radical prostatectomy (RP). Between 2003 and 2006, 71 patients were(More)
BACKGROUND To elucidate the incidence and mechanisms of sunitinib-induced thyroid atrophy, we investigated serial volumetric and functional changes, and evaluated histological changes of the thyroid gland in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients who received sunitinib. METHODS Thyroid volume (by computed tomography volumetry) and thyroid function were(More)