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Sodium (Na+) is toxic to most plants, but the molecular mechanisms of plant Na+ uptake and distribution remain largely unknown. Here we analyze Arabidopsis lines disrupted in the Na+ transporter AtHKT1. AtHKT1 is expressed in the root stele and leaf vasculature. athkt1 null plants exhibit lower root Na+ levels and are more salt resistant than wild-type in(More)
In plants and microorganisms, salt stress regulates the expression of large numbers of genes. However, the machinery that senses salt stress remains to be characterized. In this study we identified sensory histidine kinases that are involved in the perception of salt stress in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. A library of strains with(More)
Mn is an essential component of the oxygen-evolving machinery of photosynthesis and is an essential cofactor of several important enzymes, such as Mn-superoxide dismutase and Mn-catalase. The availability of Mn in the environment varies, and little is known about the mechanisms for maintaining cytoplasmic Mn(2+) ion homeostasis. Using a DNA microarray, we(More)
Sex chromosomes turn over rapidly in some taxonomic groups, where closely related species have different sex chromosomes. Although there are many examples of sex chromosome turnover, we know little about the functional roles of sex chromosome turnover in phenotypic diversification and genomic evolution. The sympatric pair of Japanese threespine stickleback(More)
Ligand receptor-based signaling is a means of cell-to-cell communication for coordinating developmental and physiological processes in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell-producing meristems utilize this signaling to regulate their activities and ensure for proper development. Shoot and root systems share common requirements for carrying out this(More)
Maternal investment for offspring's growth and survival is widespread among diverse organisms. Vertical symbiont transmission via maternal passage is also pivotal for offspring's growth and survival in many organisms. Hence, it is expected that vertical symbiont transmission may coevolve with various organismal traits concerning maternal investment in(More)
Genes that promote DNA methylation and demethylation in plants have been characterized mainly in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis DNA demethylation is mediated by bi-functional DNA enzymes with glycosylase activity that removes 5-methylcytosine and lyase activity that nicks double-stranded DNA at an abasic site. Homologous recombination-promoted knock-in targeting(More)
The interaction of legumes with N2-fixing bacteria collectively called rhizobia results in root nodule development. The number of nodules formed is tightly restricted through the systemic negative feedback control by the host called autoregulation of nodulation (AON). Here, we report the characterization and gene identification of TOO MUCH LOVE (TML), a(More)
Recent methylome analyses of the entire Arabidopsis thaliana genome using various mutants have provided detailed information about the DNA methylation pattern and its function. However, information about DNA methylation in other plants is limited, partly because of the lack of mutants. To study DNA methylation in rice (Oryza sativa) we applied homologous(More)
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies enable the rapid production of an enormous quantity of sequence data. These powerful new technologies allow the identification of mutations by whole-genome sequencing. However, most reported NGS-based mapping methods, which are based on bulked segregant analysis, are costly and laborious. To address these(More)