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Sodium (Na+) is toxic to most plants, but the molecular mechanisms of plant Na+ uptake and distribution remain largely unknown. Here we analyze Arabidopsis lines disrupted in the Na+ transporter AtHKT1. AtHKT1 is expressed in the root stele and leaf vasculature. athkt1 null plants exhibit lower root Na+ levels and are more salt resistant than wild-type in(More)
In plants and microorganisms, salt stress regulates the expression of large numbers of genes. However, the machinery that senses salt stress remains to be characterized. In this study we identified sensory histidine kinases that are involved in the perception of salt stress in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. A library of strains with(More)
The ciliate Paramecium bursaria harbors several hundred cells of the green-alga Chlorella sp. in their cytoplasm. Irrespective of the mutual relation between P. bursaria and the symbiotic algae, both cells retain the ability to grow without the partner. They can easily reestablish endosymbiosis when put in contact with each other. Consequently, P. bursaria(More)
Sex chromosomes turn over rapidly in some taxonomic groups, where closely related species have different sex chromosomes. Although there are many examples of sex chromosome turnover, we know little about the functional roles of sex chromosome turnover in phenotypic diversification and genomic evolution. The sympatric pair of Japanese threespine stickleback(More)
Genes that promote DNA methylation and demethylation in plants have been characterized mainly in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis DNA demethylation is mediated by bi-functional DNA enzymes with glycosylase activity that removes 5-methylcytosine and lyase activity that nicks double-stranded DNA at an abasic site. Homologous recombination-promoted knock-in targeting(More)
Recent methylome analyses of the entire Arabidopsis thaliana genome using various mutants have provided detailed information about the DNA methylation pattern and its function. However, information about DNA methylation in other plants is limited, partly because of the lack of mutants. To study DNA methylation in rice (Oryza sativa) we applied homologous(More)
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies enable the rapid production of an enormous quantity of sequence data. These powerful new technologies allow the identification of mutations by whole-genome sequencing. However, most reported NGS-based mapping methods, which are based on bulked segregant analysis, are costly and laborious. To address these(More)
The interaction of legumes with N2-fixing bacteria collectively called rhizobia results in root nodule development. The number of nodules formed is tightly restricted through the systemic negative feedback control by the host called autoregulation of nodulation (AON). Here, we report the characterization and gene identification of TOO MUCH LOVE (TML), a(More)
Endomembrane organization is important for various aspects of cell physiology, including membrane protein trafficking. To explore the molecular mechanisms regulating the trafficking of plasma membrane-localized proteins in plants, we screened for Arabidopsis mutants with defective localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-nodulin 26-like intrinsic(More)
AIMS Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by ventricular dilation associated with systolic dysfunction, which could be caused by mutations in lamina/C gene (LMNA). LMNA-linked DCM is severe in males in both human patients and a knock-in mouse model carrying a homozygous p.H222P mutation (LmnaH222P/H222P). The aim of this study was to investigate(More)